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Cellular Computers: Biology And The Future Of Data Processing

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posted on Nov, 17 2012 @ 09:14 AM
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Some people think the future of computers lies in smaller and smaller pieces of silicone. Others think perhaps quantum computing in the next course of action. Still more think, "Aw, to hell with computers! Why, in my day - " Yeah, chill out Grandpa. The fact, is, we could be using your failing kidneys to create a whole new generation of computing technology.

What's that? Yes, you heard me right. Scientists all over the world have been collaborating in a wide field of research that's centered around turning simple little cells into processing centers for data.

The developments went from simple...


Last year, for example, a computer scientist at the University of the West of England named Andy Adam­atzky and a team of Japanese researchers built logic gates that ran on soldier crabs. First they constructed mazes that replicated the shape of the wires in a computer’s logic gates.

Then they chased two swarms of crabs (inputs) from one end of the gate to the other. When the swarms collided, they combined to form a new swarm (output), which often headed in the direction of the sum of their vectors, demonstrating that a living, somewhat random system can produce useful order.


...to a little more complex...


In one experiment, they took a map of Canada, dropped oat flakes (slime-mold food) on the nation’s major cities, and placed the mold on Toronto. It oozed forth to form the most efficient paths to the cities, creating networks of “roads” that almost perfectly mimicked the actual Canadian highway system.


Now that's some smart mold. Or are we just as dumb as mold?


By the way, how good are you at math? Turns out its in your genes - literally!


Last April, biocomputers got even more impressive. Swiss bioengineers announced that they had programmed human cells to do binary addition or subtraction, which is how a computer does arithmetic. They genetically engineered the cells with an elaborate circuit of genes that turn one another on or off. The cells can process two inputs added to their dish (the molecules erythromycin and phloretin) and display an answer by producing red or green fluorescent proteins.


So let's get to the bottom line here: cellular computing. Who would've thunk? But if you consider it for a little bit, you'll see exactly how useful this kind of biotechnology can be. Cells interact with each other on advanced levels, rivaling even the most sophisticated silicone network. Even better, cells can regenerate and spawn, cutting down on repair costs and helping to automate future computing technology.

Not to mention the amount of data they can hold. What if a few little cells can hold 5 terabytes of information? Imagine postage stamp of cells. How many terabytes is that? I don't know how much a cell can hold, but you have to admit - the possibilities are virtually limitless. Expand into biotech cars, biotech homes, biotech medical equipment...you name it.

Ever been told you'd spend your future in a cell? I know I have. Pfft...next time I hear that, I'm going to say, "Cells are the future!" They won't have a clue, but someday, it'll make sense to everyone. And I'm thinking that 'someday' isn't too far off.



Source: www.popsci.com...
edit on 17-11-2012 by AfterInfinity because: (no reason given)




posted on Nov, 17 2012 @ 09:43 AM
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Interesting, i'll give you that!

Wonder what the sociopolitical implications of this would be

Also, I guess the mold on the map of Canada found the most efficient ways IF there hadn't been mountains, lakes, rivers, canyons etc in real life, but otherwise, very cool and interesting information



posted on Nov, 17 2012 @ 09:47 AM
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reply to post by AfterInfinity
 


So in the words of the great Jean Luc-Picard - "we have engaged the borg"


next time I hear that, I'm going to say, "Cells are the future!" They won't have a clue, but someday, it'll make sense to everyone. And I'm thinking that 'someday' isn't too far off.


Is this the beginning then...........


bits.blogs.nytimes.com...
bits.blogs.nytimes.com...

Every day, we learn more about the human body - the advent of the computer age (ice / stone / bronze) could see the next step in our "evolution" perhaps.

Interesting stuff

S&F
edit on 17-11-2012 by Sublimecraft because: spelling / grammar



posted on Nov, 17 2012 @ 09:57 AM
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reply to post by Sublimecraft
 


That's mechanical technology. We're talking about biomechanical. Biological material that looks and works the same as the real stuff, but processes binary information instead of just reacting to physical exertion.



posted on Nov, 17 2012 @ 05:29 PM
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reply to post by AfterInfinity
 


Very interesting - BUT - I thought circuit boards were being "grown" from bio-stuff like bacteria for decades already. ...???



posted on Nov, 19 2012 @ 01:03 PM
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Here is another bit of news about Biotech I'm sure you'll find interesting. It really makes one think about the nature of reality and intelligence itself. Mind boggling to say the least.

www.dailymail.co.uk...



posted on Nov, 19 2012 @ 02:17 PM
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And GOD saw that the wickedness of man was great in the earth, and that every imagination of the thoughts of his heart was only evil continually. Genesis 6:5



“A diseased cell is a program with a bug,” Akl says. “Computer scientists are good at finding bugs and fixing them. I leave the rest to your imagination. - your link


Man was given the theory of evolution. Man then could divorce himself from His Creator. Man could then believe that having "evolved this far", he can take himself to the next level. Evolution so detaches man from his Creator and being created in God’s image and likeness, that he feels no hesitancy in tampering with his DNA and biological makeup, and if you are not careful to note, it is often presented under the guise of "advancing evolution". This meme underscores the serpent religions promising global consciousness, spiritual awakening and spiritual evolution....through the bringing together of science and technology.

The Scriptures are plain, “Know that the LORD Himself is God; It is He who has made us, and not we ourselves,”



posted on Nov, 19 2012 @ 02:31 PM
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Originally posted by soficrow
reply to post by AfterInfinity
 


Very interesting - BUT - I thought circuit boards were being "grown" from bio-stuff like bacteria for decades already. ...???





Nuh-uh. Most circuit boards are some sort of fiberglass, with the extra crappy ones being some sort of resin saturated paper or phenolic, and the better ones being teflon or polyimide.

There are weirder ones, ceramic for example, but you don't see them so much.



posted on Nov, 19 2012 @ 07:37 PM
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reply to post by Bedlam
 


I had a genius friend years ago who was totally into hardware, software, numerous other things - and totally up-to-date on everything leading edge. I absolutely SWEAR we had several conversations about how circuit boards were being "grown" around 20-25 years ago. I am NOT misremembering, and he was definitely well informed. ...Now defunct technology? Got loose, went wild and now denied? What happened?



posted on Nov, 19 2012 @ 07:44 PM
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reply to post by soficrow
 


No s--t, I've never ever heard that, even as a weird rumor. And I've made many a PCB. It's another one of those oddball talents I have, I am king of hand routing. I am a PCB routing mad man.

We've got a pretty good autorouter, but I suspect I hand route about half of every board we make, and for some of them, it's just easier for me to do it than to spend days writing routing scripts.



posted on Nov, 19 2012 @ 08:14 PM
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reply to post by Bedlam
 


Bugging me big time, but Gord went blind and moved away so can't ask him. Had to google. Found only this:



MLO (Multi-Layer Organic packaging) combines advanced RF circuit materials based on liquid crystalline poly- mers (LCP) and ceramic-filled polytetrafluorethylene (PTFE) composites, coupled with novel processing and circuit topologies.

Conclusion
A reliable, high-performance organic package with embedded passive components has long been sought by the semiconductor industry. MLO has shown that such a goal is obtainable, and that organic packages are capable of challenging conventional multi-layer ceramic technology for the next generation of wireless SiP products.


NOTE: The references are about growing semiconductor crystals - and I may be misremembering (maybe he only speculated about being able to grow circuit boards)...

"grow semiconductor crystals"






edit on 19/11/12 by soficrow because: (no reason given)



posted on Nov, 19 2012 @ 08:22 PM
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Originally posted by soficrow
reply to post by Bedlam
 


Bugging me big time, but Gord went blind and moved away so can't ask him. Had to google. Found only this:



MLO (Multi-Layer Organic packaging) combines advanced RF circuit materials based on liquid crystalline poly- mers (LCP) and ceramic-filled polytetrafluorethylene (PTFE) composites, coupled with novel processing and circuit topologies.

Conclusion
A reliable, high-performance organic package with embedded passive components has long been sought by the semiconductor industry. MLO has shown that such a goal is obtainable, and that organic packages are capable of challenging conventional multi-layer ceramic technology for the next generation of wireless SiP products.



They're talking about Teflon and LCP laminates. It's organic, in that it's carbon based, but not in the sense of 'organism'.



posted on Nov, 19 2012 @ 09:06 PM
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reply to post by Bedlam
 


Thanks, knew that. ...My results so far - traced biocomputers back to 1994. Various bio-things like enzymes, amoeba (bacteria?) used to provide on/off (binary) switches. Looks like most developments applied to medical technologies, military, and nano-tech. Standardization was a problem by 2008.



Biocomputers can be an alternative for traditional "silicon-based" computers, which continuous development may be limited due to further miniaturization (imposed by the Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle) and increasing the amount of information between the central processing unit and the main memory (von Neuman bottleneck). The idea of DNA computing came true for the first time in 1994, when Adleman solved the Hamiltonian Path Problem using short DNA oligomers and DNA ligase. In the early 2000s a series of biocomputer models was presented with a seminal work of Shapiro and his colleguas who presented molecular 2 state finite automaton, in which the restriction enzyme, FokI, constituted hardware and short DNA oligomers were software as well as input/output signals. DNA molecules provided also energy for this machine. DNA computing can be exploited in many applications, from study on the gene expression pattern to diagnosis and therapy of cancer. The idea of DNA computing is still in progress in research both in vitro and in vivo and at least promising results of these research allow to have a hope for a breakthrough in the computer science.


1990: Development of a biochemical switching device: mathematical model.

The author previously showed with computer simulations that cyclic enzyme systems have the reliability of ON-OFF types of operation (McCulloch-Pitts' neuronic equation) and the applicability for a switching circuit in a biocomputer. The switching time was inevitably determined in accordance with the difference in amount between two inputs of the system. A unique switching mechanism of cyclic enzyme systems (basic switching element) and the effects of excitatory stimuli on switching properties of the integrated biochemical switching system are demonstrated.


2000: Biological computing

The concept of biocomputing, its possible applications, and recent theoretical and experimental research relevant to biological computing are reviewed. In particular, attention is given to the creation of genetic flip-flops (one-bit switches), construction of genetic clocks, amorphous computing, current work concerned with the development of techniques for exchanging data between cells, and the first DNA-based biocomputer prototypes. (AIAA)



2002: N.A.T.O. ADVANCED STUDY INSTITUTE Molecular Electronics: Bio-sensor and Bio-computer
The ASI will be structured in four sections: the first will be devoted to a general overview of the state of the art of molecular-based computer technology, the other three sections will be devoted to the theoretical aspect of molecular electronics, molecular devices, biosensor technology, and biological information processing.


2004:The principle and status quo and development of DNA computer

DNA computer is a kind of new biocomputer which is based on teh biohcmeial reacions of DNA strands, far from traditional computer. In this paper, the principles, characteristic adn status quo of DNA computer are disculssed. And its^ development is viewed.


2007: Amoeba-based Chaotic Neurocomputing: Combinatorial Optimization by Coupled Biological Oscillators




.....more....



posted on Nov, 19 2012 @ 09:07 PM
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reply to post by Bedlam
 


......continued......




2008: Refinement and standardization of synthetic biological parts and devices

Abstract
The ability to quickly and reliably engineer many-component systems from libraries of standard interchangeable parts is one hallmark of modern technologies. Whether the apparent complexity of living systems will permit biological engineers to develop similar capabilities is a pressing research question. We propose to adapt existing frameworks for describing engineered devices to biological objects in order to (i) direct the refinement and use of biological 'parts' and 'devices', (ii) support research on enabling reliable composition of standard biological parts and (iii) facilitate the development of abstraction hierarchies that simplify biological engineering. We use the resulting framework to describe one engineered biological device, a genetically encoded cell-cell communication receiver named BBa_F2620. The description of the receiver is summarized via a 'datasheet' similar to those widely used in engineering. The process of refinement and characterization leading to the BBa_F2620 datasheet may serve as a starting template for producing many standardized genetically encoded objects.



2009: nano bio computing - synthesis of a nano bio computer using DNA and nanorobots

Abstract: 1) The paper is on interfacing nanotechnology with bio technology to result a nano bio computer. 2) This technology will be capable of replacing the present generation laptops. 3) DNA is used as a memory storage device instead of hard disks. Data’s are encoded and decoded in DNA strand by converting the text message to DNA language (a, c, g, t). 4) The invention of nano processor which is eco friendly too has helped our way to design this nano computer. 5) The processing unit consists of nano processors and nanorobots are made to carry the signals from one unit to another. MEMORY UNIT: DNA is used as a memory storage device. It can understand only the sequence of A, C, G, T and act accordingly. Thus, the data that has to be encoded are converted to a string of ACGT and embedded on the DNA strand and we can decode it whenever we want to retrieve the data. Conditions: DNA should be stable, no mutation should occur. Replication process should be halted. The shape and size of the DNA should be maintained. Data can be secured without any losses only when these conditions are achieved. PROCESSING UNIT: The arrival of nano processor to the market has made our job easier. The nano processors are programmed as per the requirement and it can be interfaced with other units through nanorobots. Nanorobots can carry signal from one unit to another. The output display is done using end projectors so that the user can project the output in wall. This makes the computers size will be as small as a pen.



posted on Nov, 19 2012 @ 10:14 PM
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I think the most germy thing I've ever seen make it mainstream (to any degree) has been bacterial rhodopsin based stuff, like memory. Seems like there were some photosensors based on it too.



posted on Nov, 20 2012 @ 09:48 AM
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reply to post by Bedlam
 



...the most germy thing I've ever seen make it mainstream (to any degree) has been bacterial rhodopsin based stuff, like memory. Seems like there were some photosensors based on it too.


Maybe not household consumer mainstream but definitely medical, military etc. Also, salmonell and e. coli have both been used, most recently with magnetics. ...Think Bioelectronics, Bionanotechnology and Nanobiotechnology. Then think Biofilms.



Bioelectronics is a recently coined term for a field of research that works to establish a synergy between electronics and biology.[1] One of the main forums for information about the field is the Elsevier journal Biosensors and Bioelectronics, published since 1990. The journal describes the scope of bioelectronics as follows:
The emerging field of Bioelectronics seeks to exploit biology in conjunction with electronics in a wider context encompassing, for example, biological fuel cells, bionics and biomaterials for information processing, information storage, electronic components and actuators. A key aspect is the interface between biological materials and micro- and nano-electronics.[2]



Applications of bionanotechnology are extremely widespread. Insofar as the distinction holds, nanobiotechnology is much more commonplace in that it simply provides more tools for the study of biology. Bionanotechnology, ...promises to recreate biological mechanisms and pathways in a form that is useful in other ways.


Bacterial quorum sensing: signals, circuits, and implications for biofilms and disease.

The focus of this review is on the principles underlying signal-mediated bacterial communication, with specific emphasis on the potential for using them in two applications-development of synthetic biology modules and circuits, and the control of biofilm formation and infection.



Evolutionary analysis indicates that the biofilm network has rapidly evolved: genes in the biofilm circuit are significantly weighted toward genes that arose relatively recently with ancient genes being underrepresented.


...Hmmm. Wonder why.





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