posted on Sep, 27 2012 @ 08:04 PM
reply to post by smurfy
As stated above, the fuel for aircraft is very carefully monitored on a daily basis. For an example of the importance of controlling particulate
contamination, read this PDF file:
Jet fuel is sterile when it is produced at the refinery because of the high processing temperature; however, there are numerous opportunities to
contaminate the fuel in its route from refinery to aircraft. Contamination can occur any time that fuel is transferred.
It is extremely important that jet fuel be delivered to the aircraft clean and on specification. This includes thermal stability, flash point,
viscosity, conductivity lubricity, fluidity, and volatility.
Fuel cleanliness means the absence of solid particles such as rust and dirt and absence of free water. Particulates can plug fuel filters. Water in
the fuel may enable corrosion of some metals and aid in the growth of microorganisms. Fuels that are out of specification can seriously impact engine
life and performance
Fuel quality control is outlined in several industry standards including Air Transport Association (ATA) 103 Standard for Jet Fuel Quality Control at
Airports; International Air Transport Association (IATA) Fuel Quality Control and Fueling Service Guidance Material; and Joint Inspection Group (JIG)
that shoots a lot of holes in the theory that folks are adding “blood cells”, “bacteria”, “Aluminum Particulates”, or any other substance
into jet fuel. Its just not happening anywhere but in peoples imaginations. Jet engines are not some sort of big Cuisinarts that you can just start
throwing all sort of crap through.
Jet Fuel received at the pipeline terminal from a multi-product pipeline is placed into dedicated storage, where its quality is confirmed.
Product received that is not “on-specification” is returned to the refinery for further processing.
Received jet fuel is processed through a series of filters that can include pleated paper or synthetic fiber filter elements for removal of
particulates, often called pre-filters or Micronics filters. The jet fuel is then passed through filter/separators for removal of free waters. These
filters are equipped with water coalescing elements, which cause smaller droplets of water to combine into larger drops and then pass the fuel through
water separator elements that allow the fuel to pass through and reject the larger water droplets. Sumps are provided in the bottom of the vessel to
collect and drain off the water. Heaters should be installed on the sumps in freezing climates. The filter/separator shall incorporate an automatic
air eliminator. While filter/separators are generally considered to be the workhorse of the modern jet fuel system, they can in fact be one on the
greatest contributors of safety issues.
So the fuel is checked at each stage along the route to the Tanker farm, and is rejected if there are any bacteria, or other particulates, in it. Its
constantly checked at the farm to ensure that it remains “on spec” and as close to sterile as possible.
Its filtered more as it enters the actual hydrant system that pumps it out to the aircraft:
The typical hydrant pumping system consists of a bank of pumps operating in parallel, a bank of outbound filter/separators for water removal, and
appropriate flow control valves and appropriate isolation valves as required by the system layout. Strainers should be used to protect the pumps. The
pumps and filters are typically installed as sets on a manifold. This arrangement will ensure the flow capacity of the filter elements is not
exceeded. A flow control valve should be used to regulate the flow through each set. These manifold sets will feed through some type of pressure and
flow sensing device or devices to provide a means of controlling the pumping system.
It then passes through three more filters on the truck itself before entering the aircrafts tanks:
Fuel Servicing Vehicles or Carts shall be provided with metering, filtration and control valves to safely control the flow of fuel into the
aircraft. The Fuel Servicing Vehicle/Cart shall be equipped with a dead-man type system in accordance with NFPA 407 to stop the flow of fuel. Fuel is
typically dispensed into the aircraft at pressures not to exceed 50 psi. The vehicle or cart should be provided with pressure controls to regulate the
pressure into the aircraft.
This is the reality of the situation, and its a very serious business. There is no 'monkeying' around going on just to make clouds in the sky, get
real here folks...
On top of that, the specific density of the fuel is precisely known according to the barometric pressure at the location where the aircraft is filled.
This is because fuel is measured in the aircraft by weight, and its measured/billed on the pumping truck in gallons. These two numbers must justify at
all times, or you have a serious issue. Pilots need to know the fuel by weight for balance, airlines and service providers have to know it by gallons
for billing reasons.
edit on 9/27/2012 by defcon5 because: (no reason given)