To the moon hoaxers side
To reach the Moon astronauts would have to travel through the Van Allen Radiation Belts, resulting in lethal doses of radiation.
This is a claim the hoax advocates often make, but it is a gross exaggeration and simply not supported by the data. Radiation was a definite concern
for NASA before the first space flights, but they invested a great deal of research into it and determined the hazard was minimal. It took Apollo only
about an hour to pass through the worst part of the radiation belts - once on the outbound trip and once again on the return trip. The total radiation
dose received by the astronauts was about one rem. A person will experience radiation sickness with a dose of 100-200 rem, and death with a dose of
300+ rem. Clearly the doses received fall well below anything that could be considered a significant risk. Despite claims that "lead shielding meters
thick would have been needed", NASA found it unnecessary to provide any special radiation shielding.
The hoax advocates also make the mistake of limiting themselves to two-dimensional thinking. The Van Allen Radiation Belts consist of a
doughnut-shaped region centered on Earth's magnetic equator. The translunar trajectories followed by the Apollo spacecraft were typically inclined
about 30 degrees to Earth's equator, therefore Apollo bypassed all but the edges of the radiation belts, greatly reducing the exposure.
For more information, please see The Van Allen Belts and Travel to the Moon and Radiation Plan for the Apollo Lunar Mission.
Intense radiation from solar flares would have killed the Apollo astronauts in route to the Moon and back.
Solar flares were a NASA concern as well, but the radiation doses claimed by the hoax advocates are again greatly exaggerated and unsubstantiated.
Although low-intensity solar flares are common, they posed no real threat to the astronauts. High-intensity solar flares could have endangered the
astronauts' health, but these large eruptions are infrequent. Furthermore, there are statistical methods for determining the likelihood of a major
flare during a given time interval. If NASA found an unacceptably high probability for a solar flare event during a scheduled flight, the mission
would have been postponed. No large solar flares occurred during the Apollo missions and typical radiation doses received by the astronauts was very
For more information, please see Radiation Plan for the Apollo Lunar Mission
In addition to exposure to deadly radiation, the Apollo astronauts would have been pierced by thousands of micrometeoroids.
Shielding was provided to protect the Apollo astronauts from micrometeoroid bombardment. Due to their low mass, only a thin layer of material was
necessary to stop these dust-sized particles. For example, the Lunar Module was protected by a thin aluminum outer shield a few thousandths of an inch
thick. In addition, the astronauts' spacesuits included a micrometeoroid garment to protect them while performing activities on the lunar surface.
How could the astronauts survive in the heat of the Moon's day? Objects that are heated cannot be cooled by space.
the spacesuits were equipped with a cooling system that utilized water as a medium to carry away excess heat.
The cooling system consisted of a cooling garment worn by the astronaut, a heat exchanger, and a porous plate sublimator. Water was circulated through
tubes in the cooling garment where it absorbed heat from the astronaut’s body and then carried it to the heat exchanger in the backpack. As water
passed through the heat exchanger, heat was transferred to a layer of ice on the surface of the porous plate sublimator causing the ice to sublimate
and the resulting gas carried away the unwanted heat. The ice was replaced by continually seeping a small amount of water through holes in the metal
plate of the sublimator. When the water was exposed to the vacuum of space, the sudden drop in pressure caused it to immediately freeze onto the
Geobro, i hope you have read what i posted about the heat question you asked.
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