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The Egypt/Sphinx Theory
The lay of the land
Mainstream theory has problems, and they admit it
Old theories and boy’s clubs for western academics
Some of the evidence linking Khafre with the Sphinx comes from Lehner’s research, but the idea dates back to 1853.
Statues without crowns and poor proportions
Characteristics Statues comprised a set of very strict laws, which every artist had to follow, artists were ranked according to exact implementation of these laws. So it happened that in the course of three thousand years or more Egyptian art changed very little
The Giza Plateau
Geologically, the Giza plateau is part of a body of limestone known as the Mokkatam Formation. The plateau was originally under water in Eocene times and the rock solidified from the remains of corals and other organic remains that settled on the bottom. The plateau today dips from the northwest to the southeast. The precise angle at the Sphinx is unclear but appears to lie between 2.5 and 5 degrees.
Pharaoh Khafre carved the Sphinx, right?
He made a mistake on a simple project
This pyramid, while probably trying to say that the man who created this is just as great, if not greater, than the man who created the Great Pyramid, has one minor flaw in its design, there is a slight twist at the top that is due to the fact that the four corner angles were not aligned correctly to meet at the top. While it is very minor, it shows that there was a little less attention to detail than at the Great Pyramid.
One feature that is very noticeable on this pyramid is the top, which has a different color and texture than the rest of the pyramid, and indeed, the other pyramids around it. The section is what remains of the casing stones that once covered the entire pyramid. The reason that the top is the only section that remains is the plunderers took the sections of fine limestone that made up the casing from where is was easiest to grab, the bottom, and worked their way up.
The most remarkable thing associated with Khafre's pyramid is not a part of the pyramid at all, but part of the temple complex, the Sphinx. The Sphinx was cut directly from the bedrock at the base of the pyramid. The stones that were removed were probably used to build the pyramid itself.
Are we sure they liked this guy?
Son of Khufu. Younger brother of Prince Kawab and Pharaoh Djedefre. It is not known who Khafre's mother was, but he did hold Queen Meritites in high regard as shown in this inscription:
Kings-wife, his beloved, devoted to Horus, Mertitytes.
King's-wife, his beloved, Mertitytes; beloved of the Favorite of
the Two Goddesses; she who says anything whatsoever and it is done
for her. Great in the favor of Snefru ; great in the favor
of Khufu , devoted to Horus, honored under Khafre. Mertitytes
Khafre is thought to be the son of Khufu and Queen Meritites by some becuase of this inscription. He must have been a younger son, as his older brother Kawab seems to have been the intended heir of Khufu and upon Khufu's death the throne went to Khafre's brother Djedefre.
Not much is known about the reign of Khafre aside from his building projects. Khafre is the owner of the second largest pyramid at Giza, avalley temple, a mortuary temple and well as the sphinx.
Mariette discovered statues of Khafre in 1860. Several were found in a well in the floor and were headless. But other complete statues were found as well.
No mummy or other remains were found in Khafre’s pyramid. There is a second pit in the floor which may have held the canopic jars containing Khafre’s internal organs, but this is not certain. It has been speculated that Khafre’s Pyramid may have served a ceremonial purpose rather than as a burial place, although both possibilities could be true. There is a second chamber within the pyramid the purpose of which is unknown.
Khafre’s mortuary temple was plundered for building materials, but its foundation remains and shows that the temple was quite large, and was constructed in a manner similar to his valley temple, which is intact. Khafre’s valley temple was buried under sand until the 1800's and is in excellent condition, serving as a valuable example of temple construction from that era. Like the mortuary temple, the valley temple is constructed of a limestone core lined with pink Nubian granite imported from Aswan.
The name/person debate
There are no inscriptions on or in the Sphinx to indicate who built it.
Interestingly - the features of the face of the Sphinx bear a far more striking resemblence to an older brother of Khafre, the Pharaoh Djedefre - Radjedef.
In 1996, a NY detective and expert in identification, took various measurements of the size, angles and proportions of the head and concluded that it did not match known representations of Khafre's face. There was a greater resemblance to Khafre's elder brother Djedefre, however the lack of any records regarding the head leaves us in a bit of a quandary.
Pharaoh Khafre was known as Chephren to the Greeks, and his name, Khaf-Ra, means “Appearing like Ra.” One of Pharaoh Khufu’s sons, he was preceded in kingship by his brother, Djedefre, who ruled for about eight years. After Djedefre’s early death, Khafre assumed the throne, making him the fourth king of the Fourth Dynasty. He was succeeded by his son, Menkaure.
When was the Sphinx built?
The Pharaohs Journey
It is said there that the pharaoh, the Horus-king, is to identify himself with the solar disc and that he is to make a journey on the ground by following a map in the heavens. The Egyptologists regard this as, at best, religious mumbo-jumbo, but if, with the help of a computer, one simulates how the sky looked in 2,500 BC when these texts were written, a lot of things start looking clearer, as author Graham Hancock sees it.
"First, you have to remember that the texts say the pharoah is to identify himself with the solar disc. After that, he is to place himself 'on the riverbed of the Winding Waterway' 70 days before the summer solstice. He is then to make a journey of 70 days in which he will be carried across "the Winding Waterway", finally to be united with or fused with Horakthi, Horus-of-the-horizon.
Leo is an impressive and easy to recognize constellation, dominating the spring skies in the northern hemisphere and autumn skies in the southern hemisphere.
The lion has been identified with the Sun since the earliest Mesopotamian civilizations. In the formative period of settled civilizations in Mesopotamia and Egypt, some five millennia ago, the Sun's passage at midday through this area of the sky coincided with the midsummer solstice. Leo was therefore the constellation of high summer, which is manifestly the realm of the Sun.
On June 21st, on Summer Solstice, carved in the landscape the hieroglyph akhet. The Sun sets at 16h58 UT under the azimuth 117 + 180 = 297° between the two largest pyramids, just behind the Sphinx, as testifies the magnificent picture taken by Juan Antonio BELMONTE on June 21st 2006.
The researchers also found a third wall to the east of the temple of King Khafre, the builder of the second-largest pyramid in Giza and the likely builder of the Sphinx. According to Hawass, the wall may be part of the settlement that grew up around King Khafre's pyramid after the monarch's death around 2532 B.C. In this village, priests and officials oversaw the mortuary cult of the dead king.
Khafre's mortuary cult remained strong until the end of Egypt's Old Kingdom around 2143 to 2134 B.C. After that, initial excavations suggest the village was abandoned, said Essam Shehab, the supervisor of the Khafre's valley temple excavation.
Final summary and personal theory
B. Seismography. The seismic survey indicated the existence of several unexplored tunnels and cavities in the bedrock beneath the Sphinx, including a large rectangular chamber at a depth of some 25 feet beneath the monuments front paws.