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The province of Quito has a "river of emeralds" from quarries on whose banks the Incas acquired some of their gems but, generally speaking, the mines from which the ancient Peruvians wrested their most beautiful precious stones are unknown today The Incas had a source of emeralds in the Province of Esmeraldas north of Quito and many of today's emeralds are said to have come from this area..
Volcanoes are an incubator for many of the World’s treasures. Other gems commonly associated with volcanic
The mines of Colombia has a history similar to that of the deposits in Egypt. When the Spanish conquered the Inca empire, were astonished by the emeralds that these people had in their possession, but even under torture, the Incas did not reveal their sources. Years later, a mine in the region of Chivor, Colombia, was discovered accidentally.
The history of the Colombian emerald with the discovery of America in 1492 gives a historical turning on the presence of the emerald in the world, when in the sixteenth century Spanish outpost comes to Peru and meets the Incas and their ornaments of gold and large emeralds of very good quality, this draws the attention of the Spanish who undergo the Incas to severe punishment and torture for them reveal the location of the emerald mines. The Incas were unable to indicate location within their territories because there were no deposits and emeralds were obtained by trade with the tribes that inhabited Colombian territory. In 1537, Gonzalo Jimenez de Quesada gets the first real indication of the source of the emeralds to reach Guachetá,