In 1822 a French Physicist named Augustin Fresnel invented a lens that would make his name commonplace along the seacoasts of Europe and North America.
It looked like a giant glass beehive, with a light at the center.
The lens could be as tall as twelve feet, with concentric rings of glass prisms above and below to bend the light into a narrow beam.
At the center the lens was shaped like a magnifying glass, so the concentrated beam was even more powerful. ...
The Antikythera mechanism (pronounced /ˌæntɪkɪˈθɪərə/ AN-ti-ki-THEER-ə), is an ancient mechanical calculator (also described as the first known mechanical computer) designed to calculate astronomical positions. It was recovered in 1900–01 from the Antikythera wreck, but its complexity and significance were not understood until decades later. It is now thought to have been built about 150–100 BC. Technological artifacts of similar complexity did not reappear until the 14th century, when mechanical astronomical clocks appeared in Europe.