While trying to find later variations of 'ne-be-ru', I came across this website:
It may or may not be related, but it is an interesting similarity.
Also I would like to link everyone to
Judah and the Judeans in the Persion Period
, as this can reveal how
'ne-be-ru' (Akkadian) evolved with the Hebrew cognate.
It states that in Hebrew this term's equivalent was being used as a reference to "crossing" and also "pool", in the context of topography.
Examples suggested include the reed marshes throughout Babylon.
I really like the idea that this word "ne-be-ru" was used in the sense "crossing", because it matches with other very similar relevent elements
such as the symbol of the "cross" which dates back to this very same time period in ancient Sumeria (pre-Babylonian).
The Cross represents the Sun or Star in most instances it is commonly believed. And this puts us back at the other Ne-be-ru reference - "Star".
A hypothesis I came up with about the "Nebe-*" from the Egyptian creation myth was that possibly the "ru" was somehow split from the term and
became "Ra", which refers to the Sun. I'm not sure where the Egypt tourism website got the name for the creator God from, but check out this
information about Egypt history: Atum wiki
Atum's name is thought to be derived from the word 'tem' which means to complete or finish. Thus he has been interpreted as being the
'complete one' and also the finisher of the world, which he returns to watery chaos at the end of the creative cycle. As creator he was seen as the
underlying substance of the world, the deities and all things being made of his flesh or alternatively being his ka.
Notice how this word "Atum" fits with "Atom" even through this metaphor, the "underlying substance of the world". Neat coincidence.
In the Heliopolitan creation myth, Atum was considered to be the first god, having created himself, sitting on a mound (benben) (or identified
with the mound itself), from the primordial waters (Nu). Early myths state that Atum created the god Shu and goddess Tefnut from spitting her out
of his mouth. In the Old Kingdom the Egyptians believed that Atum lifted the dead king's soul from his pyramid to the starry heavens. He was
also a solar deity, associated with the primary sun god Ra. Atum was linked specifically with the evening sun, while Ra was associated more with the
Now we see where the "Atum" associates with "Ra". I believe that Atum = Khepera because of
In arranging his thoughts and their visible forms Khepera was assisted by the goddess Maat, who is usually regarded as the goddess of law, order,
and truth, and in late times was held to be the female counterpart of Thoth, "the heart of the god Ra." In this legend, however, she seems to play
the part of Wisdom, as described in the Book of Proverbs, 1 for it was by Maat that he "laid the foundation." Having described the coming into being
of Khepera and the place on which he stood, the legend goes on to tell of the means by which the first Egyptian triad, or trinity, came into
existence. Khepera had, in some form, union with his own shadow, and so begot offspring, who proceeded from his body under the forms of the gods Shu
and Tefnut. According to a tradition preserved in the Pyramid Texts 2 this event took place at On (Heliopolis)
So I think it's possible that "Ne-be-ru" could possibly have, over 3000 years, slowly evolved into
"Neber-tcher", the "Everlasting God of the Universe" who took the form of Atum/Khepera, notice that it's 'Khepe - Ra".
was the older term, eventually "Ra/Re" became much more commonplace terminology.
Over time words change slowly but you can find important clues that will lead you in the right direction. Context is the key, and you can trace how
various terms evolve over time.
Because of this, they also associated the Khepri with rebirth, renewal, and resurrection. Indeed, his name means "to come into being". As a
result of this, when the rival cult of the sun-god Ra gained significance, Khepri was identified as the aspect of Ra which constitutes only the
dawning sun (i.e. the sun when it comes into being).
This is very important as a clue because the Sun "crosses" the sky.
Oh and Atum became 'Amun' in trinity with Ra/Re and Ptah. Ptah = Neber-tcher
Trivia : Alabaster derives from Egyptian goddess Bast.