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On January 30, 1933 Adolf Hitler, a man who had never held public office, became chancellor of Germany. President Paul von Hindenburg, who had feared that Hitler would turn the country into a dictatorship, finally gave way to pressure from bankers, army officers and right wing politicians who were demanding order and discipline. Although right wing Nationalist politicians initially thought that they would soon tame Hitler and his ‘Brownshirt’ followers, they soon discovered how futile such an ambition was. Hitler’s speeches drove his followers into a frenzy in which they would scream out “Seig Heil!” and offer unquestioned allegiance to their leader.
On the night of February 27th, Berlin was rocked by a fire that blazed through the Reichstag Building, the German House of Parliament. The building was absolutely gutted. Called out to watch the massive bonfire, Adolf Hiltler exclaimed, “This is a God-given signal.” He was, in fact, delighted with what he saw. The very next day, Hitler met with President von Hindenburg, and pressured him into giving him dictatorial powers. This was a vital step for the Nazis. Now Hitler no longer relied upon the votes of the deputies in the Reichstag, where the Nazis did not enjoy a majority.
The following day, Chancellor Hitler took the radical steps of denying all legal guarantees of personal liberty, freedom of speech and the right of assembly by official decree. This step sent a shiver up many Berlin spines, as the people saw the destroyed Reichstag building as a symbol of the death of German democracy.
Blame for the fire was directed towards a Dutch Communist by the name of Marinus van der Lubbe. Van der Lubbe was picked up in the Reichstag grounds while the blaze was still in progress. A case was built around him that placed the simple minded Dutchman as the scapegoat of a sinister Communist plot to destabilise the nation. However, the beneficial aspects of the destruction of the Reichstag building for the Nazis did not go unnoticed and many people speculated that it was actually Chancellor Hitler who was the mastermind behind the plot.
[color=F88017]The Reichstag Fire Decree (German: Reichstagsbrandverordnung) is the common name of the Decree of the Reich President for the Protection of People and State (German: Verordnung des Reichspräsidenten zum Schutz von Volk und Staat) issued by German President Paul von Hindenburg in direct response to the Reichstag fire of 27 February 1933. The decree nullified many of the key civil liberties of German citizens. With Nazis in powerful positions in the German government, the decree was used as the legal basis of imprisonment of anyone considered to be opponents of the Nazis, and to suppress publications not considered “friendly” to the Nazi cause. The decree is considered by historians to be one of the key steps in the establishment of a one-party Nazi state in Germany
Order of the Reich President for the Protection of People and State
On the basis of Article 48 paragraph 2 of the Constitution of the German Reich, the following is ordered in defense against Communist state-endangering acts of violence:
Articles 114, 115, 117, 118, 123, 124 and 153 of the Constitution of the German Reich are suspended until further notice. It is therefore permissible to restrict the rights of personal freedom [habeas corpus], freedom of (opinion) expression, including the freedom of the press, the freedom to organize and assemble, the privacy of postal, telegraphic and telephonic communications. Warrants for House searches, orders for confiscations as well as restrictions on property, are also permissible beyond the legal limits otherwise prescribed.
[color=00FFFF]Section 1: The Individual
Articles 109 to 118 set forth individual rights of Germans, the principal tenet being that every German was equal before the law
[color=00FF00] The rights of the individual are inviolable. Individual liberties may be limited or deprived only on the basis of law. Persons have the right to be notified within a day of their arrest or detention as to the authority and reasons for their detention and be given the opportunity to object. This is equivalent to the principle of habeas corpus in the common law of England and elsewhere. (Article 114)
[color=1569C7]A German's home is an asylum and is inviolable.(Article 115)
[color=1569C7]Privacy of correspondence, of mail, telegraph, and telephone are inviolable. (Article 117)
[color=1569C7]Germans are entitled to free expression of opinion in word, writing, print, image, etc. This right cannot be obstructed by job contract, nor can exercise of this right create a disadvantage. Censorship is prohibited. (Article 118)
[color=00FFFF]Section 2: Community Life
Articles 119 to 134 guided Germans' interaction with the community and established, among other things, that:
[color=1569C7]Germans had the right to assemble peacefully and unarmed without prior permission. (Article 123)
[color=1569C7]Germans were entitled to form clubs or societies, which were permitted to acquire legal status. This status could not be denied because of the organization's political, socio-political or religious goals. (Article 124)
[color=1569C7]Free and secret elections were guaranteed. (Article 125)
[color=1569C7]The right to property was guaranteed by Article 153. Expropriation of property could be made only on the basis of law and for the public welfare, with appropriate compensation.
The September 11 attacks (also referred to as September 11, September 11th or 9/11)[nb 1] were a series of four coordinated suicide attacks that were committed in the United States on September 11, 2001, striking the areas of New York City and Washington, D.C. On that Tuesday morning, 19 terrorists from the Islamist militant group Al-Qaeda hijacked four passenger jets. The hijackers intentionally piloted two of those planes, American Airlines Flight 11 and United Airlines Flight 175, into the Twin Towers of the World Trade Center complex in New York City; both towers collapsed within two hours. The hijackers also intentionally crashed American Airlines Flight 77 into the Pentagon in Arlington, Virginia, and intended to pilot the fourth hijacked jet, United Airlines Flight 93, into a target in Washington, D.C.; however, the plane crashed into a field near Shanksville, Pennsylvania after its passengers attempted to take control of the jet from the hijackers. Nearly 3,000 people died in the attacks.
The USA PATRIOT Act (commonly known as the Patriot Act) is an Act of the U.S. Congress that was signed into law by President George W. Bush on October 26, 2001. The title of the act is a ten letter acronym (USA PATRIOT) that stands for Uniting (and) Strengthening America (by) Providing Appropriate Tools Required (to) Intercept (and) Obstruct Terrorism Act of 2001.
The act, a response to the terrorist attacks of September 11th, dramatically reduced daily freedoms of the American public and restrictions in law enforcement agencies' gathering of intelligence within the United States; expanded the Secretary of the Treasury’s authority to regulate financial transactions, particularly those involving foreign individuals and entities; and broadened the discretion of law enforcement and immigration authorities in detaining and deporting immigrants suspected of terrorism-related acts. The act also expanded the definition of terrorism to include domestic terrorism, thus enlarging the number of activities to which the USA PATRIOT Act’s expanded law enforcement powers can be applied.
[color=00FF00]US Constitution (Bill of Rights) US Patriot Act
[color=00FF00]Amendment IV: The right of the people to be secure in their persons, houses, papers, and effects, against unreasonable searches and seizures, shall not be violated, and no warrants shall issue, but upon probable cause, supported by oath or affirmation, and particularly describing the place to be searched, and the persons or things to be seized.
Freedom from unreasonable searches: The government may search and seize Americans' papers and effects without probable cause to assist terror investigation.
[color=00FF00]Amendment VI: In all criminal prosecutions, the accused shall enjoy the right to a speedy and public trial, by an impartial jury of the state and district wherein the crime shall have been committed, which district shall have been previously ascertained by law, and to be informed of the nature and cause of the accusation; to be confronted with the witnesses against him; to have compulsory process for obtaining witnesses in his favor, and to have the assistance of counsel for his defense.
Right to a speedy and public trial: The government may jail Americans indefinitely without a trial.
[color=00FF00]Amendment I: Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof; or abridging the freedom of speech, or of the press; or the right of the people peaceably to assemble, and to petition the government for a redress of grievances.
Freedom of association: To assist terror investigation, the government may monitor religious and political institutions without suspecting criminal activity.
[color=00FF00]Amendment VI: ... to have compulsory process for obtaining witnesses in his favor, and to have the assistance of counsel for his defense.
Right to legal representation: The government may monitor conversations between attorneys and clients in federal prisons and deny lawyers to Americans accused of crimes.
[color=00FF00]Amendment I: Congress shall make no law ... abridging the freedom of speech ...
Freedom of speech: The government may prosecute librarians or keepers of any other records if they tell anyone the government subpoenaed information related to a terror investigation.
[color=00FF00]Amendment VI: ... to be confronted with the witnesses against him ...
Right to liberty: Americans may be jailed without being charged or being able to confront witnesses against them. US citizens (labeled "unlawful combatants") have been held incommunicado and refused attorneys.
The Patriot Act has faced ongoing legal challenges by the American Civil Liberties Union, and in recent years, some members of Congress who had originally supported the bill have come to mistrust the Bush administration’s interpretation of the law. Nevertheless, a Republican-controlled Congress passed and Bush signed a renewal of the controversial Patriot Act in March 2006. Bush exacerbated the controversy over the renewal of the act by issuing a so-called "signing statement"—an executive exemption from enforcing or abiding by certain clauses within the law—immediately afterward.
* Hitler completely ignored the German Constitution, just as our politicians and courts are doing today in America. Whenever Hitler wanted to do something, he would just do it. He would often write a note, as he did when he wrote a note to the Nazi doctors instructing them to begin widespread euthanasia, and they did. How does this differ from the Executive orders which Bill Clinton issued and President George W Bush continues to issue to this day.
Presidential Decision Directives (PDDs) are issued by the president sketching broad changes in future policies. PDDs-25 (formerly PDD-13) is an example of Clinton’s broad policy changes without congressional approval. PDDs-25 created the framework for moving the U.S. military under the United Nations command, and is the basis for U.S. military participation in U.S. peacekeeping operations.
Executive Orders which can threaten American’s Freedoms:
EO 10995- All communications media seized by the federal government: Radio, television, newspapers, magazines, CB, HAM, short wave, telephones, satellites, and the internet. The First Amendment would be suspended.
If you mean the "nazi's of WWII", I would say no. If you mean nazi's as symbolic of despots and totalitarian governments in general, then I would say yes.
Originally posted by yourmaker
leaves me with one question.
was 9/11 a symbolic Nazi takeover?
the Führer’s promises of military expansion guaranteed him military loyalty. Hindenburg’s death facilitated changing the German soldiers’ oath of allegiance from the Reich of the Weimar Constitution to personal fealty to Adolf Hitler.
[color=F88017] The Weimar Constitution
o But the Republic survived and (after Gustav Stresemann became Chancellor in 1923) did well:
o Economic Prosperity
o Foreign Policy successes
o Cultural flowering
o After the Wall Street Crash of 1929, however, the Republic collapsed:
o Nazi Party grew more powerful
o In 1933, Adolf Hitler became Chancellor
[color=ECD872]The Weimar Constitution of 1919
[color=FF0000] with the modifications
[color=00FF00] without the modifications
[color=FFE87C]Section /paragraph I:
The Reich and the States
The German Reich is a republic.
[SIZE=4][color=FFFC17]STATE AUTHORITY derives [color=FF0000] from the people.
The German Reich is a Republic.
The [SIZE=4][color=FFFC17]POLITICAL POWER emanates [color=00FF00] from the people.
The generally recognised rules of international law are [color=FFFC17] valid as binding elements [color=FF0000]of German Reich law.
The universally recognized rules of international law are [color=FFFC17] accepted as integral and obligatory parts [color=00FF00]of the law of the German Reich.
[color=FFFC17]STATE AUTHORITY [color=FF0000] is exercised in Reich affairs by the government organizations of the Reich, based on the Reich constitution in state affairs by the government organizations, based on the respective state constitutions.
[color=FFFC17]POLITICAL POWER[color=00FF00] shall be exercised, in matters pertaining to the Reich, through the organs of the Reich on the basis of the national constitution, and, in matters pertaining to the states, through the organs of the states on the basis of the constitutions of the states.
[color=FF0000]The organization of the Reich in states, as far as possible under consideration of the will of the concerned population, shall serve the people's maximal economic and cultural achievement. The transfer of state territory within the Reich, the formation of new states within the Reich is conducted by a Reich law amending the constitution.If the concerned states agree, a simple Reich law may suffice.
A simple Reich law may also suffice, if one of the concerned states does not agree, yet the territorial alteration or new formation is demanded by popular will or necessary because of a superceding Reich interest.
Popular will has to be established by plebiscite. The Reich government may order a plebiscite, if one third of the enfranchised inhabitants in the area to be separated demands so.
Three fifth of the votes handed in, and at least the majority of the population are necessary in order to decide on the alteration of territory. Even if only the separation of a part of a Prussian administration district, a Bavarian circle or a respective territorial unit in another state is concerned, the will of the population of the entire unit has to be determined. If the concerned area is not geographically connected with the remainder of the respective administrative unit, the will of the area to be separated may, based on a special Reich law, be regarded as sufficient.
After approval of the population has been established, the Reich government has to present a respective law draft to the Reichstag (4) to decide upon. If, during separation or integration, a dispute arises over matters of treasury or debts, the Reich state court will decide for the Reich, at the request of any party involved.
The division of the Reich into states shall serve the highest economic and cultural progress of the people, with due regard to the wishes of the population affected. The alteration of state boundaries and the creation of states within the Reich shall take place by virtue of national law modifying the constitution.
Where the states directly affected consent, an ordinary national law shall suffice.
An ordinary national law shall also suffice where one of the states affected does not consent, but where the alteration of a boundary or the creation of a new state is demanded by the wishes of the population and an overwhelming national interest requires it.
[color=FFFC17](DELETED LATER)***The wishes of the population shall be ascertained by a referendum. The National Ministry shall order such a referendum to take place upon demand of one-third of the residents of the territory to be separated who are qualified to vote for members of the Reichstag.****(DELETED LATER)
[color=00FF00]Three-fifths of the votes recorded, and at least a majority of the total number of electors, are necessary to effect any alteration of boundaries or the creation of a new state. Even for the separation of only a part of a Prussian governmental district or of a corresponding administrative district in any other state, the wishes of the population of the whole district affected must be ascertained. If there is no geographical connection between the portion to be separated and the whole district, a special national law may declare that the wishes of the population of the part to be separated shall be sufficient.
When the wishes of the population have been ascertained, the National Ministry shall submit an appropriate law to the Reichstag for its acceptance.
If a dispute arises on the occasion of a union or a separation of territory in respect to property rights, it shall be decided by the Supreme Judicial Court of the Reich at the request of either party.
The president exercises domestic right and police authority within the Reichstag building. He is responsible for the house's administration; he disposes over revenues and expenses, in accordance with the Reich budget, and he represents the Reich in all legal transactions and disputes concerning its administration
The President shall exercise powers of discipline and police within the Reichstag building. The administration of the building is under his control; he has control over the income and. expenditures for the building within the limits laid down by the national budget, and he represents the Reich in all legal business and legal actions involved in his administration of the building.
Article 48 (Weimar Constitution)
Article 48 was used by President Paul von Hindenburg in 1930 to deal with the economic crisis of the time. During spring and summer 1930, Chancellor Heinrich Brüning found his government unable to obtain a parliamentary majority for its financial reform bill, which was voted down by the Reichstag.
The government, however, did not seriously try to negotiate with the Parliament to find a modus vivendi. Instead, Brüning asked Hindenburg to invoke Article 48 in order to promulgate the bill as an emergency decree and thereby give Brüning's government the authority to act without the consent of the Reichstag.
When von Hindenburg gave his authority and issued the decree, the Reichstag repudiated the decree by a slight majority on July 18, 1930. Under Article 48, this vote by a majority of the Reichstag invalidated the presidential decree.
Faced with a breakdown of parliamentary rule at a time when the economic situation demanded action, Brüning asked von Hindenburg to dissolve parliament and call for new elections. The Reichstag was accordingly dissolved on 18 July and new elections were scheduled for 14 September 1930
If a state fails to carry out the duties imposed upon it by the national constitution or national laws, the President of the Reich may compel performance with the aid of armed force.
If public safety and order be seriously disturbed or threatened within the German Reich, the President of the Reich may take the necessary measures to restore public safety and order; if necessary, with the aid of armed force. For this purpose he may temporarily suspend in whole or in part the fundamental rights enumerated in Articles 114, 115, 117, 118, 123, 124 and 153.
The President of the Reich must immediately communicate to the Reichstag all measures taken by virtue of Paragraph 1 or Paragraph 2 of this Article. On demand of the Reichstag these measures must be abrogated.
If there be danger in delay, the state ministry may, for its own territory, take such temporary measures as are indicated in Paragraph 2. On demand by the President of the Reich or by the Reichstag such measures shall be abrogated.
Detailed regulations shall be prescribed by a national law.
[color=FF0000] With modifications
If a state (8) does not fulfil the obligations laid upon it by the Reich constitution or the Reich laws, the Reich President may use armed force to cause it to oblige.
In case public safety is seriously threatened or disturbed, the Reich President may take the measures necessary to reestablish law and order, if necessary using armed force. In the pursuit of this aim he may suspend the civil rights described in articles 114, 115, 117, 118, 123, 124 and 154, partially or entirely.
The Reich President has to inform Reichstag immediately about all measures undertaken which are based on paragraphs 1 and 2 of this article. The measures have to be suspended immediately if Reichstag demands so.
If danger is imminent, the state government may, for their specific territory, implement steps as described in paragraph 2. These steps have to be suspended if so demanded by the Reich President or the Reichstag. Further details are provided by Reich law.
Vote Number: 213 Vote Date: October 1, 2008, 09:22 PM
Required For Majority: 3/5 Vote Result: Bill Passed
House vote : 60.5% voted for it.
Measure Number: H.R. 1424 (A bill to provide authority for the Federal Government to purchase and insure certain types of troubled assets for the purposes of providing stability to and preventing disruption in the economy and financial system and protecting taxpayers, to amend the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 to provide incentives for energy production and conservation, to extend certain expiring provisions, to provide individual income tax relief, and for other purposes. )
Measure Title: A bill to provide authority for the Federal Government to purchase and insure certain types of troubled assets for the purposes of providing stability to and preventing disruption in the economy and financial system and protecting taxpayers, to amend the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 to provide incentives for energy production and conservation, to extend certain expiring provisions, to provide individual income tax relief, and for other purposes.
House vote-60% voted for it.
The provision of financial help or liquidity to a corporation that otherwise would be on the brink of failure or bankruptcy. A bailout might be performed for the benefit of the one providing the monetary aid (someone who bails out a struggling company in order to gain control of that company), or simply for the benefit of the company and anyone who consumes the goods or services offered by that company. Some historical bailouts occurred during the Great Depression and the S&L Crisis, and also have occurred more recently as the United States government bailed out many financial organizations in 2008 and 2009.
The Constitution of the United States is the supreme law of the United States of America. The first three Articles of the Constitution establish the rules and separate powers of the three branches of the federal government: a legislature, the bicameral Congress; an executive branch led by the President; and a federal judiciary headed by the Supreme Court. The last four Articles frame the principle of federalism. The Tenth Amendment confirms its federal characteristics.
The Constitution was adopted on September 17, 1787, by the Constitutional Convention in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, and ratified by conventions in eleven states. The first ten amendments are known as the Bill of Rights. The Constitution has been amended seventeen times (for a total of 27 amendments) and its principles are applied in courts of law by judicial review.
The Constitution guides American society in law and political culture. It is the oldest charter of supreme law in continuous use, and it influenced later international figures establishing national constitutions. Recent impulses for reform center on concerns for extending democracy and balancing the Federal budget.
Timeline of the United States Constitution
1775 Revolutionary War begins (the 13 Colonies revolt against the British)
1776 Declaration of Independence written and approved by the Continental Congress
1781 Revolutionary War ends
The Continental Congress agrees on the Articles of Confederation
March 1, Continental Congress is replaced by the Congress of the Confederation, which forms the basis of the new US government
1783 Britain recognizes the independence of the USA (Treaty of Paris)
1787 US Constitution written at the Constitutional Convention in Philadelphia, PA [May 25 - Sept. 17]
1788 US Constitution ratified by 9 states [June 22] and becomes the supreme law of the USA
1789 George Washington elected first President of the USA
March 4, The first Congress met (in New York, NY, then the nation's capital)
1790 First Supreme Court assembled (in New York, NY, then the nation's capital); the Chief Justice was John Jay
Dec., US capital moves to Philadelphia
1791 The Bill of Rights (first 10 amendments) added to the Constitution
1800 US capital moves to Washington, District of Columbia
1802 Marbury v. Madison - the first time that the court found that a law was unconstitutional (John Marshall was Chief Justice)
1861 Abraham Lincoln elected President
Civil War begins (Fort Sumter)
1865 Civil War ends (Lee surrenders to Grant)
Amendment 13 - Slavery abolished
Abraham Lincoln assassinated
1868 Amendment 14 - Rights of citizenship to all people born in USA or naturalized
1870 Amendment 15 - Gives the right to vote to all citizens, regardless of color or race, but women are not mentioned
1913 Amendment 16 - Income tax begins
1920 Amendment 19 - Women's suffrage (women given the right to vote)
1971 Amendment 26 - Voting age lowered to 18
1992 Amendment 27 - Congressional pay increases go into effect only during the next Congressional session
EO 10995- All communications media seized by the federal government: Radio, television, newspapers, magazines, CB, HAM, short wave, telephones, satellites, and the internet. The First Amendment would be suspended.
EO 10997- Seizure of all electrical power: fuels, including gasoline, and minerals.
EO 10998- Seizure of all food resources: farms, and farm equipment. Anti-food hoarding will go into effect.
EO 10999- Seizure of all kinds of highways, seaports, waterways, rail ways, airports, and public storage facilitates. The government can seize any vehicle.
EO 11000- Seizure of all civilians for work under federal supervision.
EO 11001- Federal takeover of all health, education and welfare, including hospitals, pharmaceuticals, and schools.
EO 11002- Postmaster General empowered to register everyman, woman, and child in the U.S.A.
EO 11003- Seizure of all aircraft and airports by the Federal Government.
EO 11004- Housing and finance authority may shift populations from one locality to another. Hosing may be seized.
EO 11005- Seizure of railroads, inland waterways, and storage facilities.
EO 11051- The director of the Office of Emergency Planning authorized to put Executive Orders into effect in times of increased international tension or “financial crisis.” He is also to perform such additional functions as the president may direct.
EO- 11490- Presidential control over all U.S. citizens and businesses (including churches) in time of emergency.
EO- 11921- The government would seize control over education, welfare, mechanisms of production and distribution, energy sources, wages, salaries, credit, and the flow of money in U.S. financial institutions and impose total censorship.
EO 12919- Directs various cabinets’ officials to be constantly ready to take over virtually all aspects of the U.S. economy during a State of Emergency- at the direction of the president.
EO 13010- Directs FEMA to take control over all government agencies in time of emergency. [Note: FEMA is now directly under the control of the president a his National Security Council]
EO 13011- Creates a national information system, a massive new bureaucracy with authority to manage “Federal Information Technology” (signed by President Clinton on July 16, 1998) It links the data gathered by the health, Education, and Labor Departments to the data assessable to the FBI,CIA,EPA, and other federal agencies.
National Security and Homeland Security Presidential Directive# 51 signed on May 9, 2007. When the president determines a catastrophic emergency has occurred, the president can take over all government functions and direct all private sector activities to ensure we will emerge from the emergency with an "enduring constitutional government."
National Security and Homeland Security Presidential Directive
NATIONAL SECURITY PRESIDENTIAL DIRECTIVE/NSPD 51
HOMELAND SECURITY PRESIDENTIAL DIRECTIVE/HSPD-20
Subject: National Continuity Policy
(1) This directive establishes a comprehensive national policy on the continuity of Federal Government structures and operations and a single National Continuity Coordinator responsible for coordinating the development and implementation of Federal continuity policies. This policy establishes "National Essential Functions," prescribes continuity requirements for all executive departments and agencies, and provides guidance for State, local, territorial, and tribal governments, and private sector organizations in order to ensure a comprehensive and integrated national continuity program that will enhance the credibility of our national security posture and enable a more rapid and effective response to and recovery from a national emergency.
(2) In this directive:
(a) "Category" refers to the categories of executive departments and agencies listed in Annex A to this directive;
(b) "Catastrophic Emergency" means any incident, regardless of location, that results in extraordinary levels of mass casualties, damage, or disruption severely affecting the U.S. population, infrastructure, environment, economy, or government functions;
(c) "Continuity of Government," or "COG," means a coordinated effort within the Federal Government's executive branch to ensure that National Essential Functions continue to be performed during a Catastrophic Emergency;
(d) "Continuity of Operations," or "COOP," means an effort within individual executive departments and agencies to ensure that Primary Mission-Essential Functions continue to be performed during a wide range of emergencies, including localized acts of nature, accidents, and technological or attack-related emergencies;
(e) "Enduring Constitutional Government," or "ECG," means a cooperative effort among the executive, legislative, and judicial branches of the Federal Government, coordinated by the President, as a matter of comity with respect to the legislative and judicial branches and with proper respect for the constitutional separation of powers among the branches, to preserve the constitutional framework under which the Nation is governed and the capability of all three branches of government to execute constitutional responsibilities and provide for orderly succession, appropriate transition of leadership, and interoperability and support of the National Essential Functions during a catastrophic emergency;
(f) "Executive Departments and Agencies" means the executive departments enumerated in 5 U.S.C. 101, independent establishments as defined by 5 U.S.C. 104(1), Government corporations as defined by 5 U.S.C. 103(1), and the United States Postal Service;
(g) "Government Functions" means the collective functions of the heads of executive departments and agencies as defined by statute, regulation, presidential direction, or other legal authority, and the functions of the legislative and judicial branches;
(h) "National Essential Functions," or "NEFs," means that subset of Government Functions that are necessary to lead and sustain the Nation during a catastrophic emergency and that, therefore, must be supported through COOP and COG capabilities; and
(i) "Primary Mission Essential Functions," or "PMEFs," means those Government Functions that must be performed in order to support or implement the performance of NEFs before, during, and in the aftermath of an emergency.
(17) The Director of National Intelligence, in coordination with the Attorney General and the Secretary of Homeland Security, shall produce a biennial assessment of the foreign and domestic threats to the Nation's continuity of government.
(18) The Secretary of Defense, in coordination with the Secretary of Homeland Security, shall provide secure, integrated, Continuity of Government communications to the President, the Vice President, and, at a minimum, Category I executive departments and agencies.
(19) Heads of executive departments and agencies shall execute their respective department or agency COOP plans in response to a localized emergency and shall:
Some people have referred to it as the "secret government" of the United States. It is not an elected body, it does not involve itself in public disclosures, and it even has a quasi-secret budget in the billions of dollars. This government organization has more power than the President of the United States or the Congress, it has the power to suspend laws, move entire populations, arrest and detain citizens without a warrant and hold them without trial, it can seize property, food supplies, transportation systems, and can suspend the Constitution.
Not only is it the most powerful entity in the United States, but it was not even created under Constitutional law by the Congress. It was a product of a Presidential Executive Order. No, it is not the U.S. military nor the Central Intelligence Agency, they are subject to Congress. The organization is called FEMA, which stands for the Federal Emergency Management Agency. Originally conceived in the Richard Nixon Administration, it was refined by President Jimmy Carter and given teeth in the Ronald Reagan and George Bush Administrations.
FEMA had one original concept when it was created, to assure the survivability of the United States government in the event of a nuclear attack on this nation. It was also provided with the task of being a federal coordinating body during times of domestic disasters, such as earthquakes, floods and hurricanes. Its awesome powers grow under the tutelage of people like Lt. Col. Oliver North and General Richard Secord, the architects on the Iran-Contra scandal and the looting of America's savings and loan institutions.
FEMA has even been given control of the State Defense Forces, a rag-tag, often considered neo-Nazi, civilian army that will substitute for the National Guard, if the Guard is called to duty overseas.
THE MOST POWERFUL ORGANIZATION IN THE UNITED STATES.
Though it may be the most powerful organization in the United States, few people know it even exists. But it has crept into our private lives. Even mortgage papers contain FEMA's name in small print if the property in question is near a flood plain. FEMA was deeply involved in the Los Angeles riots and the 1989 Loma Prieta earthquake in the San Francisco Bay Area. Some of the black helicopter traffic reported throughout the United States, but mainly in the West, California, Washington, Arizona, New Mexico, Texas and Colorado, are flown by FEMA personnel.
FEMA has been given responsibility for many new disasters including urban forest fires, home heating emergencies, refugee situations, urban riots, and emergency planning for nuclear and toxic incidents. In the West, it works in conjunction with the Sixth Army. FEMA was created in a series of Executive Orders. A Presidential Executive Order, whether Constitutional or not, becomes law simply by its publication in the Federal Registry. Congress is by-passed.
General Frank Salzedo, chief of FEMA's Civil Security Division stated in a 1983 conference that he saw FEMA's role as a "new frontier in the protection of individual and governmental leaders from assassination, and of civil and military installations from sabotage and/or attack, as well as prevention of dissident groups from gaining access to U.S. opinion, or a global audience in times of crisis." FEMA's powers were consolidated by President Carter to incorporate:
The National Security Act of 1947, which allows for the strategic relocation of industries, services, government and other essential economic activities, and to rationalize the requirements for manpower, resources and production facilities; The 1950 Defense Production Act, which gives the President sweeping powers over all aspects of the economy;
The Act of August 29, 1916, which authorizes the Secretary of the Army, in time of war, to take possession of any transportation system for transporting troops, material, or any other purpose related to the emergency; and The International Emergency Economic Powers Act, which enables the President to seize the property of a foreign country or national. These powers were transferred to FEMA in a sweeping consolidation in 1979
The most shining example of America to the world has been its peaceful transition of government from one administration to another. Despite crises of great magnitude, the United States has maintained its freedom and liberty. This nation now stands on the threshold of rule by non-elected people asserting non-Constitutional powers. Even Congress cannot review a Martial Law action until six months after it has been declared.
For the first time in American history, the reigns of government would not be transferred from one elected element to another, but the Constitution, itself, can be suspended.
The scenarios established to trigger FEMA into action are generally found in the society today, economic collapse, civil unrest, drug problems, terrorist attacks, and protests against American intervention in a foreign country. All these premises exist, it could only be a matter of time in which one of these triggers the entire emergency necessary to bring FEMA into action, and then it may be too late, because under the FEMA plan, there is no contingency by which Constitutional power is restored.
Ford and GM Scrutinized for Alleged Nazi Collaboration
By Michael Dobbs
Washington Post Staff Writer
Monday, November 30, 1998; Page A01
Three years after Swiss banks became the target of a worldwide furor over their business dealings with Nazi Germany, major American car companies find themselves embroiled in a similar debate.
Like the Swiss banks, the American car companies have vigorously denied that they assisted the Nazi war machine or that they significantly profited from the use of forced labor at their German subsidiaries during World War II. But historians and lawyers researching class-action suits on behalf of former prisoners of war are busy amassing evidence of collaboration by the automakers with the Nazi regime.
"General Motors was far more important to the Nazi war machine than Switzerland," said Bradford Snell, who has spent two decades researching a history of the world's largest automaker. "Switzerland was just a repository of looted funds. GM was an integral part of the German war effort. The Nazis could have invaded Poland and Russia without Switzerland. They could not have done so without GM."
Both General Motors and Ford insist that they bear little or no responsibility for the operations of their German subsidiaries, which controlled 70 percent of the German car market at the outbreak of war in 1939 and rapidly retooled themselves to become suppliers of war materiel to the German army.
But documents discovered in German and American archives show a much more complicated picture. In certain instances, American managers of both GM and Ford went along with the conversion of their German plants to military production at a time when U.S. government documents show they were still resisting calls by the Roosevelt administration to step up military production in their plants at home.
After three years of national soul-searching, Switzerland's largest banks agreed last August to make a $1.25 billion settlement to Holocaust survivors, a step they had initially resisted. Far from dying down, however, the controversy over business dealings with the Nazis has given new impetus to long-standing investigations into issues such as looted art, unpaid insurance benefits and the use of forced labor at German factories.
Although some of the allegations against GM and Ford surfaced during 1974 congressional hearings into monopolistic practices in the automobile industry, American corporations have largely succeeded in playing down their connections to Nazi Germany. As with Switzerland, however, their very success in projecting a wholesome, patriotic image of themselves is now being turned against them by their critics.
"When you think of Ford, you think of baseball and apple pie," said Miriam Kleinman, a researcher with the Washington law firm of Cohen, Millstein and Hausfeld, who spent weeks examining records at the National Archives in an attempt to build a slave labor case against the Dearborn-based company. "You don't think of Hitler having a portrait of Henry Ford on his office wall in Munich."
These auto manufacturers are not really American companies any more. The only thing that makes them America is that they are traded on the NYSE. They are multinational, and they have shown in the past that they have no loyalty to America, only to the bottom line. The government needs to ask why should they bail out multinational companies who are taking jobs overseas?
Inside the Shadow Government
National Emergencies and the Cult of Secrecy
by Harry Helms
Feral House, 2003, paper
Over the years, presidents have accumulated enormous powers to deal with national emergencies. Some of these powers, like those authorized in Section 606(c) of the Communications Act, have been granted ... by Congress. Others, like the detention of Japanese-American citizens by Executive Order 9066, have been, in effect, appropriated by various presidents through the issuance of executive orders justified by a national emergency...
Using executive orders, presidents have suspended the constitutional right to a writ of habeas corpus, spent money without Congressional authorization, created entirely new federal agencies, forced banks to close, demonetized gold, seized mines, and control wages and prices.
... the National Security Act of 1947 ... contained sweeping ... new powers for the president. Various continuing national emergencies brought about the issuance of ever more expansive executive orders. New systems of classification and official secrecy (many springing directly from the National Security Act of 1947) resulted in increasing government secrecy; eventually billions of dollars in annual federal spending would be kept secret from all but a few members of Congress.
Secret plans were drafted for the U.S. military to take over most of the functions of civilian government in case of a national emergency. A huge secret infrastructure was built to protect and shelter the president and other key government leaders in case of a nuclear attack.
Many have never heard of these measures. Rather than have a complete and open debate about the new perils facing constitutional government after World War II, and the proposing of constitutional amendments to deal with those dangers, the whole matter was largely handled off the books. There were several reasons for this, but the strongest seems to have been an obsessive concern for a vaguely defined "national security."
A Brief History of the Beetle
The idea for the Beetle came from Adolf Hitler, who while in prison in 1924 following the unsuccessful putsch on the Federal German capital. Hitler conceived of an idea to solve Germany's unemployment problem, the Government would build special roads (autobahns) for motor vehicles. He would also mass-produce a car (the peoples car, the Volkswagen) which the average man in the street would be able buy. 9 Years later (February 1933) the Nazi party swept to power, and at the very first cabinet meeting Hitler raised the issue of the special roads. Work began on these roads in September 1933. The design's for the Volkswagen were not finalised until 1938 and the Volkswagen finally saw the light of day in 1939, unfortunately the Second World War ceased production of the Volkswagen.
The Ford Model T
(colloquially known as the Tin Lizzie, T‑Model Ford, or T) is an automobile that was produced by Henry Ford's Ford Motor Company from September 1908 to October 1927. It is generally regarded as the first affordable automobile, the car that opened travel to the common middle-class American; some of this was because of Ford's innovations, including assembly line production instead of individual hand crafting.
The Ford Model T was named the world's most influential car of the 20th century in an international poll.
The coming of World War II and Ford's mental collapse
Ford had opposed America's entry into World War II and continued to believe that international business could generate the prosperity that would head off wars. Ford "insisted that war was the product of greedy financiers who sought profit in human destruction"; in 1939 he went so far as to claim that the torpedoing of U.S. merchant ships by German submarines was the result of conspiratorial activities undertaken by financier war-makers.
The financiers to whom he was referring was Ford's code for Jews; he had also accused Jews of fomenting the First World War. In the run-up to World War II and when the war erupted in 1939, he reported that he did not want to trade with belligerents. Like many other businessmen of the Great Depression era, he never liked or entirely trusted the Franklin Roosevelt Administration, and thought Roosevelt was inching the U.S. closer to war.
However, Ford continued to do business with Nazi Germany, including the manufacture of war materiel.
Beginning in 1940, with the requisitioning of between 100 and 200 French POWs to work as slave laborers, Ford-Werke contravened Article 31 of the 1929 Geneva Convention.
At that time, which was before the U.S. entered the War and still had full diplomatic relations with Nazi Germany, Ford-Werke was under the control of the Ford Motor Company. The number of slave laborers grew as the war expanded although Wallace made it clear that companies in Germany were not required by the Nazi authorities to use slave laborers.
Ford in the early 1920s sponsored a weekly newspaper that published (among many non-controversial articles) strongly anti-Semitic views. At the same time Ford had a reputation as one of the few major corporations actively hiring black workers; he was not accused of discrimination against Jewish workers or suppliers.
In 1918, Ford's closest aide and private secretary, Ernest G. Liebold, purchased an obscure weekly newspaper for Ford, The Dearborn Independent. The Independent ran for eight years, from 1920 until 1927, during which Liebold was editor. Every Ford franchise nation-wide had to carry the paper and distribute it to its customers.
The newspaper published The Protocols of the Elders of Zion, which was discredited by The Times of London as a forgery during the Independent's publishing run
Ford's 1927 apology was well received. "Four-Fifths of the hundreds of letters addressed to Ford in July 1927 were from Jews, and almost without exception they praised the Industrialist."
Ford Motor company
The Ford Motor Company, founded in 1903 by Henry Ford, is one of the largest auto makers in the world.
During a time of crisis throughout the auto industry in recent years, Ford emerged as the sole American automaker in a position to survive the steepest sales downturn in decades without a government bailout. That helped the company improve its reputation and win new customers.
In March 2012, Ford had its best month in five years. The company said its U.S. sales rose 5 percent in March on strong demand for the Focus small car. Automakers reported strong sales across the board for the month, pushing the industry to its best quarter since before the recession, even though gasoline prices climbed to more than $4 a gallon in many states.
People's wagon: 1940s: Germany
German dictator Adolf Hitler (1889-1945) gave Henry Ford a medal for making cars affordable. Inspired by the Model-T Ford, Hitler asked German auto-maker Dr Ferdinard Porsche to develop a simple people's car or "Volks Wagen" called the KDF (Kraft durch Freude or Strength through Joy). Renamed the Beetle, it sold over 20 million worldwide and was one of the most popular cars of the 20th century.
Status symbols: 1950s/1960s: America
Ford wanted to keep cars simple to keep them cheap. But his "any color so long as it's black" message fell out of favor: people wanted comfort and style. In the 1930s, cars became sleek, glamorous, and "streamlined"; inside, they boasted luxuries like automatic gears and window defrosters. The end of World War II brought cars inspired by planes. Swaggering "gas guzzlers" were given tail fins like jet fighters—and burned almost as much fuel!
Paving the way: 1930s-1950s: Europe and America
Many countries launched huge roadbuilding schemes in the mid-20th century. Hitler helped to pioneer Germany's high-speed Autobahns in the 1930s, while his Italian pal Benito Mussolini (1883-1945) greatly expanded the Italian network of autostrade. Britain didn't start building motorways until the 1950s, when America also reorganized its major roads into a simple numbered network called the Interstate Highway System.
The Hitler regime honored Henry Ford for his enduring support by bestowing upon him this medal, the
Verdienstkreutz Deutscher Adler (the Grand Service Cross of the Supreme Order of the German Eagle).
Henry Ford has secured a place in history as a pioneer of the automobile, a man who brought industrial “progress” to a whole generation of people; as an efficient manager and industrialist, who effectively mass-produced cars and made them affordable and available to the American people; and as a man who embodied many so-called “American values”—a “self-made man”: upright, religious, strong in character, a successful businessman and a man of the people with strong ties to nature. These are all qualities that many people desire in an “American hero”—as Ford seems to some Americans to have been.
What is perhaps less known about Henry Ford is that for several years he sponsored the publication of articles in the Dearborn Independent newspaper and was the publisher of several books that attacked and demonized Jews, spreading hatred throughout the American Midwest. One must question the legacy of a man who, on the one hand, so powerfully embodied the success of the “American dream” but who, on the other, also harbored deep-seated prejudices
Privately, Ford also had said earlier: “I know who caused the war—the German-Jewish bankers! I have the evidence here. Facts! I can’t give out the facts now, because I haven’t got them all yet, but I’ll have them soon.” The first issue hit the newsstands on 11 January 1919, and the articles began to blame the Jews for everything – they caused the war and they were thieves in control of the world’s finances. The paper’s xenophobic bias condemned the assimilation of new immigrants by asserting that
“The problem is not…with the pot so much as it is with the base metal. Some metals cannot be assimilated, refuse to mix with the molten mass of the citizenship, but remain ugly, indissoluble lumps. How did this base metal get in?...What about those aliens who have given us so much trouble, these Bolsheviki messing up our industries and disturbing our life?”
1. The funds of NSDAP 1919-1933: There were enormous sums
In autumn of 1919 cash of NSDAP party consists of 7 Marks and 50 Cents. Hitler's efforts bring 700 Reichsmarks, not more.
After the coup attempt of 1923 the whole funds of the party of 170,000 Goldmarks are confiscated, and NSDAP is prohibited until 1925. With this also some million Marks of depths are deleted. SA members have to beg for money in the streets. According to police report of Munich police local meetings of 1926 consist of 3,000 to 4,000 persons. In 1928 there are 60 to 80 members yet.
(In: Ian Kershaw: Hitler 1889-1936, Stuttgart 1998, p.376)
The elections of 20 May 1928 only bring 12 mandates for Reichstag. After stock market crash of 1929 there are elections at 14 September 1930, and now NSDAP gets 107 mandates. But Hitler's NSDAP never gets more than 37%.
Finances are needed for
-- financing of mass movement
-- financing of a private army (SA) with rising memberships (numbers of members: 1924: 30,000; 1930: 80,000; 1932: 220,000; 1933: 400,000; 1934: appr. 4,000,000)
-- financing of propaganda inclusive major events with 100,000 participants
-- edition of a magazine "Ethnic Observer" (orig. German: "Völkischer Beobachter") first two times a week, then daily
-- purchase of luxury party headquarters, thousands of flags and two air planes.
Before takeover of power in the beginning of 1933 Gau headquarters partially have high dept mountains. Without help from abroad NSDAP never had come to power. And these sponsors were "not visible" for a long time. These were "not visible players" in the chess game of power.
Ford, however, also began to encroach into his workers’ personal lives and to “Americanize” his largely-immigrant workforce by offering English classes and other “improvement” programs, the goal of which was to create a “new American”—one who was encouraged not to dwell on the Old-World past, but rather focus on conforming to the standards of the New.
This belief in his own righteousness led Ford to take on a more sermon-like tone with people in telling them how to live. Ford surrounded himself with a very small, tight circle of advisors.
Access to this inner circle was strictly controlled by Ford’s long-time personal secretary, Ernest G. Liebold, who would protect his “Boss” for many years to come.
This type of management style may have been conducive for getting things done, but it also alienated Ford from what his workers were thinking and created an isolationism that proved hard to bridge. This sense of “being out of touch” partially explains Ford’s later actions
edit on 22-4-2012 by BIHOTZ because: (no reason given)