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ScienceDaily (Apr. 12, 2012) — Expanding on previous research providing proof-of-principle that human stem cells can be genetically engineered into HIV-fighting cells, a team of UCLA researchers have now demonstrated that these cells can actually attack HIV-infected cells in a living organism.
In this current study, the researchers similarly engineered human blood stem cells and found that they can form mature T cells that can attack HIV in tissues where the virus resides and replicates.
Originally posted by BiggerPicture
how do mice even get Human immunodefficiency virus?
previous studies of HIV even in our closely related chimps, do not mean much for treatment in humans so how do they do so with mice to men?
CD8 (cluster of differentiation 8) is a transmembrane glycoprotein that serves as a co-receptor for the T cell receptor (TCR). Like the TCR, CD8 binds to a major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecule, but is specific for the class I MHC protein. There are two isoforms of the protein, alpha and beta, each encoded by a different gene. In humans, both genes are located on chromosome 2 in position 2p12.
It is becoming clear that the two helper T-cell types identified only a few years ago may be significantly more important than first assumed. Remember, the Th1 helper-cell helps generate a cytotoxic T-cell response, and the Th2 helper-cell helps generate an antibody response. As it turns out, certain intracellular pathogens primarily elicit a Th2 response in certain in-bred strains of mice, while in a different in-bred mouse strain, the same pathogen primarily elicits a Th1 response. In this example, all mice which respond primarily with antibody (B-cell; Th2 help), die; and, all mice which primarily respond with a cytotoxic T-cell response (Th1 help), live! Such is not the case for every intracellular pathogen - some responses are very balanced with respect to B-cell and cytotoxic T-cell contributions, and others are imbalanced in one or the other direction. The balance in contribution of these two paths to an immune response, appears to not only depend upon the particular infectious organism, but also upon the particular genetic background of the infected animal. Thus, one can imagine that one may be able to find a way to tip the balance towards the most effective response path against a given organism, e.g., either antibody production by B-cells, or development of cytotoxic T-cells. This research is one of the prime areas under investigation with regard to HIV. There are very limited data to date; but, those individuals who have had HIV for a really long time, but have not yet acquired AIDS (there are indeed now a number of such individuals), appear to have their immune response shifted towards the cytotoxic side (Th1 help). This limited information on HIV, in combination with basic research information on several different diseases using animal models (mice), has generated a quick response within the research community. Consequently, there are efforts currently underway to identify the biochemical substances which are involved in directing a response along the Th1 path, and efforts to determine how the immune system might be manipulated to direct a response along a given path. Such experimentation is long and difficult, and requires money, skill, unflinching commitment, and an abiding faith that this problem can be solved.
Copyright John C. Brown, 1995edit on 14-4-2012 by Sinny because: (no reason given)