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Genetically modified foods are foods derived from genetically modified organisms (GMOs). Genetically modified organisms have had specific changes introduced into their DNA by genetic engineering techniques. These techniques are much more precise than mutagenesis (mutation breeding) where an organism is exposed to radiation or chemicals to create a non-specific but stable change. Other techniques by which humans modify food organisms include selective breeding; plant breeding, and animal breeding, and somaclonal variation.
GM foods were first put on the market in 1996. Typically, genetically modified foods are transgenic plant products: soybean, corn, canola, rice, and cotton seed oil. Animal products have also been developed, although as of July 2010 none are currently on the market. In 2006 a pig was controversially engineered to produce omega-3 fatty acids through the expression of a roundworm gene. Researchers have also developed a genetically-modified breed of pigs that are able to absorb plant phosphorus more efficiently, and as a consequence the phosphorus content of their manure is reduced by as much as 60%.
Genetically-modified foods (GM foods) have made a big splash in the news lately. European environmental organizations and public interest groups have been actively protesting against GM foods for months, and recent controversial studies about the effects of genetically-modified corn pollen on monarch butterfly caterpillars1, 2 have brought the issue of genetic engineering to the forefront of the public consciousness in the U.S. In response to the upswelling of public concern, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) held three open meetings in Chicago, Washington, D.C., and Oakland, California to solicit public opinions and begin the process of establishing a new regulatory procedure for government approval of GM foods3.
Humans have been involved in genetic modification of animals, whether knowingly or not, since domestication began about 12,000 years ago. For most of this time genetic modification has been brought about simply by identifying and breeding from animals which best suited human needs for food, clothing, transport or draught power. The increase in the human population in the 18th century led to greater emphasis on 'selective breeding' (picking the best animals to be parents of the next generation) for increased output of animal products such as meat, milk, fibre and eggs.
Potentially, direct genetic modification could be used to enhance the productivity of farm animals, or alter their products e.g. by creating strains which grow faster, which show greater resistance to disease, or which produce novel proteins in their eggs or milk that are beneficial to human health. Such applications are being investigated experimentally in some countries, but the routine use of direct genetic modification in food-producing animals is unlikely in the short to medium term.
Genetic engineering is a targeted and powerful method of introducing desirable traits into animals using recombinant DNA (rDNA) technology. DNA is the chemical inside the nucleus of a cell that carries the genetic instructions for making living organisms.
In January, 2009, the Food and Drug Administration issued a final guidance for industry on the regulation of genetically engineered (GE) animals. The guidance explains the process by which FDA is regulating GE animals and provides a set of recommendations to producers of GE animals to help them meet their obligations and responsibilities under the law. While the guidance is intended for industry, FDA believes it may also help the public gain a better understanding of this important and developing area.
A British lord and fertility researcher has announced plans to breed genetically engineered pigs, for the purpose of harvesting their organs for transplant into humans.
Genes from the humans were put into sheep in Aotearoa (New Zealand), in hopes that the sheep would produce a drug to be used against emphysema. Some people agreed to give genetic samples, but nobody consented to having them put into sheep. (PPL Therapeutics of Scotland, in conjunction with Selbourne Pharmaceuticals)
In Virginia, human genes have been introduced into cows, in order to have the cows produce human breast milk, in a collaboration between PPL therapeutics and infant formula companies.
Spider genes were put into goats, so that goats will produce silk genes in their milk. The company doing this plans to use the silk for bullet proof vests and anti-ballistic missile systems (Nexia Biotechnologies of Canada)
Mice have been genetically engineered to produce human proteins in their semen. The plan is to later use this same technique with pigs.
Man-made copies of the flounder fish's anti-freeze gene have been inserted into potatoes, tobacco, and tomatoes to try to make them more resistant to frosts.
What happened to evolving from apes?
Apes = 48 chromosomes
Man = 46 chromosomes
In 1987, a group of geneticists published a surprising study in the journal Nature. The researchers examined the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) taken from 147 people across all of today's major racial groups. These researchers found that the lineage of all people alive today falls on one of two branches in humanity's family tree. One of these branches consists of nothing but African lineage, the other contains all other groups, including some African lineage.
The evidence of DNA reveals that all humans are very closely related. A Scot, a Japanese and an Australian Aborigine are far more closely linked by family inheritance than any three chimpanzees from different African groups. DNA research suggests that all surviving humans are descended from one woman who lived perhaps 200,000 years ago.
By contrast, the Neandertal genome had an average of 27 +/- 2.2 differences from modern humans (3.375 times the average difference between modern humans). The smallest difference between any human and the Neandertal was 22, and the largest difference between any human and the Neandertal was 36. These differences put the Neandertal genome well outside the limits of modern humans. Another interesting result is that the mtDNA sequence seemed equally distant from all modern groups of humans. In particular, it did not seem to be more closely related to Europeans, something that might have been expected if, as some scientists think, Neandertals were at least partly ancestral to them.
People with blue eyes have a single, common ancestor, according to new research.
New research shows that people with blue eyes have a single, common ancestor. A team at the University of Copenhagen have tracked down a genetic mutation which took place 6-10,000 years ago and is the cause of the eye colour of all blue-eyed humans alive on the planet today.
Originally posted by dayve
y would the air force base have the information?
Neanderthals and modern humans coexisted in Europe for several thousand years, but the duration of this period is uncertain. Modern humans may have first migrated to Europe 40–43,000 years ago, and Neanderthals may have lived as recently as 24,000 years ago in refugia on the south coast of the Iberian peninsula such as Gorham's Cave.
Mating with Neanderthals and another group of extinct hominids, Denisovans, strengthened the human immune system and left behind evidence in the DNA of people today, according to new research.
"The modern human populations who left Africa to colonize other continents were likely to have been small groups who started off with limited HLA diversity and suffered further reduction of HLA diversity due to disease," Parham told Discovery News. "Interbreeding with archaic humans introduced additional HLA variants into the modern human population that increased their genetic viability and capacity to resist infection."
Researchers sequencing Neandertal DNA have concluded that between 1 and 4 percent of the DNA of people today who live outside Africa came from Neandertals, the result of interbreeding between Neandertals and early modern humans.
Originally posted by 1Sun3Mud6
reply to post by greyer
It doesn't help that people help hide the information aswell. I'll give you an example you get abunch of people on a website trying to put information together because it's all scattered out like pieces to a puzzle.
And eventually that website will help shut you down. As if they notified the government "Someone figured it out". Like they said on a documentary I watched. The illuminati think they are the only ones who are supposed to know.
Because the knowledge of et's would destroy morality in humanity.