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Numerous contacts in the 2200 - to 3200km range made recently on 144MHz prove that sporadic-E on the higher VHF bands is not limited to the 2200km distance maximum characteristic of "one -hop" E-layer propagation. Stations as widely separated as St Paul Island (in the Gulf of St Lawrence) and Florida have completed 2-meter contacts over 2200 km into the Midwest and Far West; during the June 1987 ARRL VHF QSO Party, several extraordinary contacts over paths 2900 km and longer were completed on 144MHz from Arizona and Nevada to Georgia and Florida via sporadic-E. Many other examples of contacts made over similar distances indicate that conditions capable of supporting such contacts may be more common than once thought. In spite of these accomplishments, the longest 144MHz sporadic-E contact was not made in North America, but rather is claimed by Gyula Nagy, HG0HO, and Salvatore Patruno, EA8XS, who united two continents over a 3865-km path on July 16, 1983.
Sporadic-E is a type of ionospheric E-layer reflection caused by small patches of unusually dense ionization. These sporadic E-layer "clouds" appear unpredictably, but they are most common over the US and southern Canada during the daylight hours of late spring and summer. Sporadic-E events may last for just a few minutes to several hours; a given event usually affects only small areas of the country at any one time. During June and July, signals propagated by means of sporadic-E ionization may be heard on 50MHz for several hours a day on more than half the days. Sporadic-E is observed on 144 MHz less than a tenth as often as on 50MHz. Signals are often remarkably strong, allowing 50 and 144MHz stations running 10 watts, and often much less than that, to make contacts 1500 km and longer with relative ease.
One analysis of the relationship between the planetary K-index and sporadic-E, summarized in Fig 3, demonstrates that observed 50MHz E-skip conditions have occurred more often when the K index was low. When the index was high, as during the geomagnetic storm of June 15 to 22, 1965, observed minutes of sporadic-E activity fell off precipitously. The relationship between sporadic-E ionization and the 11 year solar cycle is less clear, but data from three long-term studies, presented in Fig 4, suggests that sporadic E may peak during solar minima.
ERIE CITY | ERIE COUNTY | 6TH ST - FROM N PARK ROW ( 7TH TO 6TH, SASSAFRAS TO FRENCH) SEVERAL LARGE EXPLOSIONS CAUSED BY UNDERGROUND TRANSFORMERS. ERIE FIRE ALSO NOW GETTING HIGH GAS READINGS. DEVELOPING INCIDENT. A NEW TRANSFORMER EXPLODES EVERY 3 TO 4 M
Police closed off 7th and Peach late Wednesday night because of a big crater.
The street was opened up by an underground explosion, proceeded by two other explosions near Perry Square at 6th and Peach.
Police and firemen were on the scene and PennElec was also called in. They believe that all caused by an explosion of a transformer.
A total of six explosions occurred. Police advised that people in the area to avoid the site of the explosions. Especially Perry Square on the left side. Gannon University also sent out alerts to their students, telling them now to go anywhere near the area.
Police said this was nothing criminal, that the explosions were results of an underground transformer.
Originally posted by steve95988
I just now had a light bulb in my lamp go out
Most likely not related to this event...edit on 01/04/2009 by steve95988 because: (no reason given)