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Gravitational lensing from inception to the future

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posted on Feb, 24 2012 @ 04:08 PM
Gravitational lensing from inception to the future
Light is a very important aspect of the “observational sciences”, partly because we observe with our eyes, therefore light is the medium we interact with the outside world and “optically observe” our surroundings. The eye acts as a photonic detector and collects and absorbs photons which are encoded by their interaction with our visible world, with information such as colour, distance perception and scale.
The visable portion of the electromagnetic spectrum interacts with us through our eyes using light.
So what is light?
Isaac Newton born on a farmer, was an only child and was a self taught genius.
Publishes 1687 “ philosophiae naturalis principia mathematica”
English translation: principals of natural philosophy
It contained Newton’s three laws of motion
What does motion have to do with light?
Albert Einstein 1879-1955

before my theory, it had always been assumed that if all matter vanished from the universe, space and time would remain; according to relativity he said this was not true

Einstein related energy to mass
What does mass have to do with light?
If space and time only exists because of matter, and light can be bent in its path because of the effect of mass gravity on the “mass less” light particles.
In an experiment in 1919 the bending of light around the sun confirmed the theory of mass gravity effects.
Einstein went on to describe how light would be effected on its path through the universe in relation to the massive galaxy clusters, that would distort light and “bend” its path, and from this information he deduced that a distant galaxy would be “gravitationally lensed”,
He predicted an “einstiens cross” from the effects of gravity using relativity as a large forground object “warped” space time around its mass gravity.
He was correct, and later proven right.

It was not until 1979 that astronomers spotted the first gravitationally lensed galaxy, and since then several dozen lensed galaxies have been found. Such discoveries are difficult to make, however, because the lensed galaxies are far away, very faint, and randomly found across the sky, while there are many millions of other galaxies that at first glance appear similar
they were very difficult to find, but the first of the gravitational lenses were allowing the study of objects much further away from the earth than we ever could before.

A gravitational lens not only distorts the image of a distant object, it can also act like an optical lens, collecting and refocusing the light to make it appear brighter. Wondering if gravitational lensing might be responsible for the unusual brightness of these objects, the Herschel scientists teamed up with CfA astronomers Mark Gurwell and Ray Blundell to use the Submillimeter Array (SMA) to help resolve the question through its superb spatial resolution.

The idea was that by “knowing what to look for” as a signature of optical lensing or gravitational lensing, in this case it was a part of the electromagnetic spectrum in the sub MM to infrared ranges.

I was surprised to learn that Herschel is so good at finding these cosmic lenses," said Asantha Cooray of the University of California, Irvine. "Locating new lenses is an arduous task that involves slogging through tons of data. With Herschel, we can find a lot of them much more efficiently." Cooray is a co-author of a paper about the discovery, appearing in the Nov. 5 issue of the journal Science. The lead author is Mattia Negrello of the Open University in the United Kingdom.
A cosmic magnifying lens occurs when a massive galaxy or cluster of galaxies bends light from a more distant galaxy into a warped and magnified image. Sometimes, a galaxy is so warped that it appears as a ring -- an object known as an Einstein ring after Albert Einstein who first predicted the phenomenon, referred to as gravitational lensing. The effect is similar to what happens when you look through the bottom of a soda bottle or into a funhouse mirror.
so the super cold space based satellite telescope studying the infra red and sub mm universe,
Turned out to be the one of the best to find these “cosmic magnifying glasses” was the emitting of tell tale light signatures that Herschel was designed to “measure and collect”.

The results showed that foreground galaxies were indeed magnifying all five of the bright galaxies. The galaxies are really far away -- they are being viewed at a time when the universe was only two to four billion years old, less than a third of its current age.

The reason these “gravity lenses” were important was that it allowed us to “test” our theories,

We've known for a long time that lensing is capable of making a physical measurement of Hubble's constant," KIPAC's Phil Marshall said. However, gravitational lensing had never before been used in such a precise way. This measurement provides an equally precise measurement of Hubble's constant as long-established tools such as observation of supernovae and the cosmic microwave background. "Gravitational lensing has come of age as a competitive tool in the astrophysicist's toolkit," Marshall said.
the entire story of the discovery of the signature of lensing can be found here,
here is an animation of an example of gravitational lensing,
interesting news was the upgraded hubble telescope was now able to “see” the gaseous halo around galaxies, sometimes refered to as “dark matter halios”.

"With the new spectrograph we can see galaxy halos out to at least 150,000 parsecs," says Tripp. One kiloparsec is about 19 trillion miles. "Where once we saw only the framework we are now getting a more complete picture, including the composition and movement of gases in the envelope, varying temperatures in different locations and the chemical structure, all in incredible detail," Tripp adds.

Not only have we found that star-forming galaxies are pervasively surrounded by large halos of hot gas," says Tripp, "we have also observed that hot gas in transit. We have caught the stuff in the process of moving out of a galaxy and into intergalactic space."

so it is very interesting that not only does the sun have a bubble (heliosphere) so too does the galaxy, and there is a difference measurable between “inside” and “outside” the bubble.
And the bubble is massive,
so how does that change the light we view from type 1A super nova and other indicators of distance?
how would supernova look in a universe when the nova had a bubble and was in a galaxy in a bubble,
and would those conditions effect the observable characteristics of the light coming from with such a structure in between the action and the observer?

On-going expansion of the universe is not a remnant of some furious bang at a distant past, but the universe is expanding because energy that is bound in matter is being combusted to freely propagating photons, most notably in stars and other powerful celestial mechanisms of energy transformation,” Annila said. “Thus, today’s rate of expansion depends on the energy density that is still confined in matter as well as on the efficacy of those present-day mechanisms that break matter to light. Likewise, the past rate of expansion depended on those mechanisms that existed then, just as the future rate will depend also on those mechanisms may emerge in the future. Since all natural processes tend to follow sigmoid curves when consuming free energy in the least time, also the universe is expected to expand in a sigmoid manner.”

well if there is so many gravitational lensings being found and predicted to be found, does that effect the “cosmic microwave bacround”?
instead of using these lenses to look further and further away, we can also use them to look closer to home, and use them to define great detail, so the ability can be used to magnify and enhace light from objects that are a little closer to us.
How do you see the ring of hot gas around a black hole of a galaxy billions of light years away?

Hubble directly observes the disc around a black hole

Until now, the minute apparent size of quasars has meant that most of our knowledge of their inner structure has been based on theoretical extrapolations, rather than direct observations.

The team therefore used an innovative method to study the quasar: using the stars in an intervening galaxy as a scanning microscope to probe features in the quasar's disc that would otherwise be far too small to see. As these stars move across the light from the quasar, gravitational effects amplify the light from different parts of the quasar, giving detailed colour information for a line that crosses through the accretion disc.
so using this spectrographic gravitational lensing we can now “sample” the temperature and composition of very remote objects.
This is not just useful for seeing far off objects, it also allows us to test what other objects are made of.
i would contend that using the newest gravitational lensing experiments and findings,
i think that the dark matter and dark energy levels, that we currently accept might change with our optical and gravitational view of the universe.


edit on 24-2-2012 by XPLodER because: (no reason given)

posted on Feb, 24 2012 @ 04:26 PM
Thank you so much for this post. I understand much more than I did about gravitational lensing. It is no small feat that you are able to explain such a complex idea in terms a regular person can comprehend. S&F

posted on Feb, 24 2012 @ 04:39 PM
Great Information
easy to understand. S&F

posted on Feb, 24 2012 @ 04:41 PM

Originally posted by Iamschist
Thank you so much for this post. I understand much more than I did about gravitational lensing. It is no small feat that you are able to explain such a complex idea in terms a regular person can comprehend. S&F

thanks for that,
here are some of the pictures

a galaxy as a magnifying source for light,

the picture of the black hole "disc of hot gas"

a picture of an einstiens "ring"

nasa individual galaxy lensing

detecting the hot gas envolope (bubble) around a galaxy using a backround quasar (star)

using a galaxy as an "optical magnifying glass"

space based telescope looking for "lensing candidates"

the test field and candidates for further observations


edit on 24-2-2012 by XPLodER because: add more

edit on 24-2-2012 by XPLodER because: (no reason given)

posted on Feb, 24 2012 @ 04:52 PM
reply to post by XPLodER

Whole new way to look at a black hole, somehow it does not look as menacing, why does it look like it has no center? Great photos.

posted on Feb, 24 2012 @ 05:52 PM

Originally posted by Iamschist
reply to post by XPLodER

Whole new way to look at a black hole, somehow it does not look as menacing, why does it look like it has no center? Great photos.

im not sure i can answer your question

this is the first direct "picture" of an acreation disc, im not sure if the black hole would be visable against the bright light coming from the fastest gasses swirling around the black hole.

i suppose the other reason may be that there is no black hole and "the outside" of the galaxy bubble is a source of energy that rotates our galactic bubble from out side
and imparts energy towards the center

but these are just guesses


posted on Feb, 24 2012 @ 05:58 PM
reply to post by XPLodER

lol you kinda lost me. I thank you for trying, maybe someone will come along who knows, ATS is like that, one of it's finer points

posted on Feb, 25 2012 @ 03:08 AM

Originally posted by chudek
Great Information
easy to understand. S&F

thank you i was trying to keep it simple considering the topic,
there has been massive changes in the last year in grav lenses

glad you enjoyed it

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