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he ocean has storms and weather that rival the size and scale of tropical cyclones.
These storm are better known as eddies.
They are huge masses of water spinning in a whirlpool pattern—either clockwise or counterclockwise—and they can stretch for hundreds of kilometers.
Eddies often spin off from major ocean current systems and can last for months.
Eddies can be productive. As certain types of eddies stir the ocean, they draw nutrients up from the deep, fertilizing the waters to create blooms of microscopic marine plants in the open ocean, where little life was once thought to exist.
As these water masses stir the ocean, they draw nutrients up from the deep, fertilizing the surface waters to create blooms of microscopic, plant-like organisms in the open ocean, which is relatively barren compared to coastal waters.
A maelstrom /ˈmeɪlstrɒm/ is a very powerful whirlpool; a large, swirling body of water. A free vortex, it has considerable downdraft. The power of tidal whirlpools tends to be exaggerated by laymen. There are virtually no stories of large ships ever being sucked into a maelstrom, although smaller craft are in danger  and tsunami generated maelstroms may even threaten larger crafts. Tales like those by Paul the Deacon, Jules Verne and Edgar Allan Poe are entirely fictional.
The ocean's tides are caused primarily by the moon and, to a lesser extent, by the sun. As the tides rise and fall, the ocean's water is stirred.
But as you know from playing in the surf at the beach, the winds are another potent factor in stirring the sea. Everywhere on Earth, the winds blow across the ocean's surface, sometimes softly, sometimes with violent atmospheric storms such as in hurricanes.
The winds stir the water, like when you blow across a cup of coffee to which you just added cream. But the winds are not powerful enough to mix the ocean all the way down.
The ocean is simply too deep. How deep can the winds stir the sea into a uniform layer? The depth of intense mixing by the wind is called the mixed layer. On average, the mixed layer is about 100 meters in depth. It gets deeper when the winds are stronger and shallower during weaker winds.
Scientists, of course, want to know the exact relationship and so they study the mathematics of how the depth of the mixed layer varies with wind speed. Very roughly, doubling the speed of the wind doubles the depth of the mixed layer. Because the water within the mixed layer moves up and down during its stirring, tiny creatures that live in the mixed layer also go up and down, in and out of more intense light.
The mixed layer is roughly the same as the layer where light is available to phytoplankton in the ocean. This surface zone has the technical name of pelagic zone. Most of the ocean's living things stay in the pelagic zone; for creatures that do not photosynthesize, feeding on those that do is important, and the photosynthesizes are found in the pelagic zone.
U.S. scientists discovered two giant whirlpools in the Atlantic Ocean, off the coast of Guyana and Suriname. It became a sensational discovery because this part of the ocean has been studied thoroughly, and no one expected anything like that to appear in the area. More importantly, no one can understand where the whirlpools came from and what surprises they may bring to people. According to Brazilian scientist Guilherme Castellane, the two funnels are approximately 400 kilometers in diameter