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Pre-Inca culture (500-1000 AD) that corresponds to the late intermediate period, settled down in the north andean part on the department of Cajamarca, their domain reached to the departments of Amazonas and La Libertad.
Remarkable megalithic constructions among those outstanding Cumbe Mayo (the biggest megalithic construction in America and the maximum expression of hydraulic engineering), besides Collos, the necropolis of Otuzco, Kuntur Wasi's temples and Rumi Tiana among others.
It reached a high development in the textile art; their ceramic highlights because of its fineness, the characteristic shapes are plates tripods or with pedestal base, recipients with the shape of a lentil, glasses and tablespoons; the pieces were elaborated with clay and kaolin and they have very thin walls, worked by hand, without molds and cooked in open oven. They decorated their pots in its exterior and interior, with fine lines in ocher, red or black on a beige base.
It was an organized and warrior town; they were subjected to the Tahuantisuyo after bloody battles with the Inca Pachacútec who ordered to build a temple to the God Inti and an acllahuasi (Quechua language) after taking the city of Cajamarca.
Cumbe Mayo (in Quechua language that means fine river)
Located 21 km (13 miles) south west of Cajamarca, the highway that leads to it is half asphalted and the other half is not.
This archaeological deposit belongs to the Caxamarca culture (XI Century), the biggest megalithic construction in America, covers an area of 25,000 sq/mt. There exist a fortress, sanctuaries and caves with stone carvings.
Outstanding the water channels, considered as the maximum expression in hydraulic engineering. The aqueduct is channel finely carved in rock, with more than 1 km (0.62 miles) length and 1.5 m. (4.92 feet) gradient, traced forming borders and straight angles to control flow speed, avoiding the water to return and also the erosion.
Cumbe Mayo is located about 12 miles (19 km) southwest of the Peruvian city of Cajamarca, at an elevation of approximately 11,000 feet (3,300 meters). The location is best known for the ruins of a Pre-Incan aqueduct stretching approximately five miles in length. The aqueduct collected water from the Atlantic watershed and redirected it on its way to the Pacific Ocean. It is thought to have been constructed around 1500 B.C. and was once thought to be the oldest existing man-made structure in South America. The name Cumbe Mayo may be derived from a Quechua phrase, kumpi mayu, meaning “well-made water channel,” or humpi mayo, meaning “thin river.”
There are a number of petroglyphs on the aqueduct and surrounding caverns.
This remote mountainous region is also the location of a "stone forest" composed of natural volcanic rocks which have been shaped by erosion. These formations of volcanic rock are also known as Los Frailones, or the Stone Monks