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Single-bubble sonoluminescence  is a mysterious phenomenon. A small bubble of gas, usually air, is trapped at the center of a flask of liquid, usually water, by the application of an intense acoustic field. The frequency of the field is typically 25 or 30 kHz, and once per cycle, driven by the sound field, the bubble undergoes expansion and then rapid contraction....The sound wave, with a time scale of tens of microseconds, produces a contraction of the bubble measured in tens of nanoseconds, which in turn somehow generates a pulse of visible light whose duration has recently been measured to be tens of picoseconds .To quantize this model, we can express ~E and ~B in terms of a vector potential ~A, and endow the fourier coefficients of ~A with the appropriate commutation relations. Effectively this means that the coefficients a and b in the above expressions become quantum operators....1) the Casimir effect arises essentially from the coupling of the electromagnetic field to a boundary. When that boundary is moving, the field is coupled to a time-dependent source, which in and of itself leads to the production of energy; and 2) if this time-dependent coupling gives rise to unstable modes, as it does in our model, then an unexpectedly large amount of energy can be produced.
de Broglie Wave Mechanics - In 1923, while still a graduate student at the University of Paris, Louis de Broglie published a brief note in the journal Comptes rendus containing an idea that was to revolutionize our understanding of the physical world at the most fundamental level. He had been troubled by a curious "contradiction" arising from Einstein's special theory of relativity. First, he assumed that there is always associated with a particle of mass m a periodic internal phenomenon of frequency f. For a particle at rest, he equated the rest mass energy mc² to the energy of the quantum of the electromagnetic field hf. That is, mc² = hf where h is Planck's constant and c is the speed of light. De Broglie noted that relativity theory predicts that, when such a particle is set in motion, its total relativistic energy will increase, tending to infinity as the speed of light is approached. Likewise, the period of the internal phenomenon assumed to be associated with the particle will also increase (due to time dilation). Since period and frequency are inversely related, a period increase is equivalent to a decrease of frequency and, hence, of the energy given by the quantum relation hf. It was this apparent incompatibility between the tendency of the relativistic energy to increase and the quantum energy to decrease that troubled de Broglie. The manner in which de Broglie resolved this apparent contradiction is the subject of the famous 1923 Comptes rendus note [Comptes rendus de l'Académie des Sciences, vol. 177, pp. 507-510 (1923)].
O.K. again you have to agree that frequency is the inverse of wavelength. Hertz assumes that time is measured in wavelength -- if you want to say "second" this actually means wavelength as meter or feet or radian. So "second" refers to the period of time it takes for one full wavelength distance. Hertz already assumes a commutative symmetric relationship of wavelength. So 300 to 200 hertz "going backwards" is still 1.5 Hertz -- it's still a fraction of 300 over 200 Hertz. Hertz already assumes that sound has a speed as the square of the distance -- by the wavelength squared. So when you talk about Hertz what you really mean is this:
You asked earlier -- sarcastically -- does time slow down if it is reversed? Yes -- the Perfect Fifth interval as the overtone harmonic 3/2 is a higher frequency -- and so the wavelength time is faster since it is smaller value -- 2/3. Now if the subharmonic of 3/2 frequency is 2/3 frequency or 1/3 frequency then it is the same music interval -- a Perfect Fifth but in the opposite direction of time so frequency is lower and the wavelength spreads out and time slows down. So now the wavelength is 3/2 as time but the frequency is 2/3.
In their experiment, the researchers achieved superluminal sound velocity by rephasing the spectral components of the sound pulses, which later recombine to form an identical-looking part of the pulse much further along within the pulse. So it’s not the actual sound waves that exceed c, but the waves’ “group velocity,” or the “length of the sample divided by the time taken for the peak of a pulse to traverse the sample.”
Originally posted by fulllotusqigong
reply to post by UncleV
O.K. so you mean two notes moving from 300 hertz to 200 hertz. The pitch interval is the ratio or fraction of the two frequencies which is why 300 hertz to 200 hertz as the Perfect Fifth is 1.5 as a fraction. So the subharmonics are not a "theory" but a real perception of listening as beats are subharmonics -- no one can deny that beats are not theory but real perception of sound.
So this proves that the Perfect Fifth and Perfect Fourth have nonlinear feedback that increases the amplification. So you are claiming that subharmonic is theory because it's based on the geometric symbol of pitch perception and therefore is not needed for using Hertz. You ask me -- is an octave a doubling of Hertz or not? I have pointed out in the links I provided that this is precisely the "bait and switch" issue that was covered up.
The question is though in relation to the 100 hertz as the "root" frequency for the octave. So 200 hertz is the octave but 300 hertz is not the octave.
Originally posted by UncleV
Just had a flash....when you say 'sub' as in subharmonics I think "low" as in subwoofers. Therefore, in my example there are no subharmonics as the root note is the lowest. But, are you referring to the 'sub' in subharmonics as in subset, a part of the whole, not necessarily lower in pitch? Please, a simple yes or no to this question is all that is needed to get us on the same page. Anything more than that (links, videos, half hour long diatribes) is clutter and I will burn virtual dog poop on your virtual doorstep.
a G down to a C is a fourth.
Only then can he get the frequency ratios to create both a Perfect Fourth and a Perfect Fifth that are not below the value of the octave frequency.
as I've mentioned the F to C is listed as 2/3x and the C to G is 3/2x. So it's the same "C" just like with the harmonic series but it is noncommutative. So it would appear that this is fine except that the fractions are the frequency -- not the wavelength! So the frequency of the first Perfect Fifth as 2/3x is actually the wavelength and then it is doubled to 4/3x as the Perfect Fourth frequency.
Similarly, one could certainly point out the long history of experimental confirmation of linear acoustics and could cite successful measurements of the Doppler effect. Nevertheless, since the linear wave equation is not exact,one needs to carefully consider whether this equation is appropriate to use in solving acoustical problems of interest, particularly in problems that involve the presence of two primary waves which can interact nonlinearly to produce sum-and-difference frequency waves.
On the one hand the quantum theory of light cannot be considered satisfactory since it defines the energy of a light particle (photon) by the equation E=hf containing the frequency f. Now a purely particle theory contains nothing that enables us to define a frequency; for this reason alone, therefore, we are compelled, in the case of light, to introduce the idea of a particle and that of frequency simultaneously. On the other hand, determination of the stable motion of electrons in the atom introduces integers, and up to this point the only phenomena involving integers in physics were those of interference and of normal modes of vibration. This fact suggested to me the idea that electrons too could not be considered simply as particles, but that frequency (wave properties) must be assigned to them also. (Louis de Broglie, Nobel Prize Speech, 1929)
Originally posted by fulllotusqigong
From this ATS thread on Milo Wolff's wave model
Everything below the atom is just subharmonic wave structures, the 'factors' if you will of the harmonic ratios of the stable atom.
Originally posted by fulllotusqigong
reply to post by Mary Rose
Hey Mary -- Tom Bearden relies on Broken Symmetry as the secret to free energy creation -- this is just the time-frequency uncertainty principle seen from the perspective of classical physics.
Non linearities can give you great sound, in the right places, and preferably in a way that you can control them, they don't always sound good. As an extreme example, take lots of distortion on a guitar. You play a single note, it sounds fat and sustains forever... great You add a fifth, you have a really ballsy sounding power chord.. great Now you add a third.... UGH!!!
The equation used by Archtyas, from Babylon, was arthimetic mean times harmonic mean = geometric mean squared. For the Pythagorean Tetrad this means if A = 1 and C = 2, the octave, then B = 3/2 for the arithmetic mean (A + C divided by 2) and B = 4/3 for the harmonic mean or 2(AC) divided by A + C. Meanwhile B = the square root of two for the geometric mean or the arithmetic mean times the harmonic mean equals the geometric mean squared (3/2×4/3 = 2)....So 2:3 became 3:2 from A + C divided by 2 = B with A = 1 and C = 2 as the octave. This conversion of the complimentary opposite Tetrad perfect fifth of 2:3 into 3:2, as an arithmetic mean, then could be doubled, 9/4, and inverted back into the octave as 9/8, the major second interval and then converted to the geometric mean as three major second intervals or the square root of two also known as the “Devil’s Interval,” the tritone – C to F#.
So again if A is 1 and C is 2 as the string length or inverse ratio of the octave, then the arithmetic mean is 3/2 and the harmonic mean is 4/3 and the geometric mean squared is 2. Or mass equals the octave NOW as geometric mean with 4 times the weight creating an acceleration as velocity squared -- time as distance. This is, again, where Newton got his inverse square law. 4 times the weight stretches the string to twice the frequency - or an octave increase, thereby changing time to a measure of weight and distance (momentum) by utilizing Archytas geometric mean conversion of frequency as COMPLIMENTARY OPPOSITES. What had been frequency (A = 1 and C = 2) is now reduced to distance (A + C divided by 2) with the perfect fifth now converted to a logarithmic standard.
So if A = 1 and C = 4 (the double octave) then B = 5/2 is the arithmetic mean while the harmonic mean is 8/5 and their product, the geometric mean is 4, which has the square root equaling two. This confirms that Archytas did not think of the octaves as a doubling but rather a SQUARING even though this clearly goes against the harmonic series.
The real clincher for this complimentary opposites argument is Simon Stevin's 17th C. conversion of Archytas' diatonic scale into equal-tempered tuning. Stevin relied on the octave defined as a starting value of 5000 with it's "double" as 10,000. Stevin then argues that half of the octave is the square root, or the tritone and so a third of the octave, or two major second intervals, the major third is therefore a cube root of two. This fully accepted modern basis for equal-tempered tuning -- that which you consider to be the truth -- is directly from Archytas' proof for doubling the cube, namely that if a cube has a side one then to double the volume to two the side must be cube root of two with the proportion 1:5/4::8/5:2. That's the exact equation Simon Stevin used -- only converted to logarithmics. As I discussed in my article above and in my previous blogbook chapter, the subject of several emails from math professor Joe Mazur, Archytas' source for the cube root of two is from Babylon's use of the equation, arithmetic mean x harmonic mean = geometric mean squared. So again Stevin ASSUMES the value of the cube root of two without discussing the ORIGINS of the square root of two and all this time no one has questioned that fact that the arithmetic mean x harmonic mean equation Archytas relied on to create geometric mean is based on the octave, not as a doubled value, but as a SQUARED valued. Again having arithmetic mean 3/2 x harmonic mean 4/3 = 2 with 2 as geometric mean squared so that 3/2 x 3/2 = 9/4, the major second above the octave or the 11th interval (with 4 as the octave "squared" not doubled) and then halved to the sixth root of two as 9/8, the major second, cubed as the tritone or the square root of two is the source for Simon Stevin's equal-tempered tuning. The cube root is then just double the sixth root -- or 10/8 as 5/4. So Simon Stevin used the geometric mean equation A/B = C/X with X=BC/A just as Archytas used the arithmetic mean equations with A = 1 and X = 2. Only with Archytas it's not said what "X" is -- so the Babylonian geometric mean is 6:8::9:12, ostensibly the same as Simon Stevin's A:B::C:X but this time reduced to either 2:3::2:3 or 3:4::3:4. Archytas, in solving for the square root of two excludes the START of the octave -- which again is now no longer doubled, as is the case in the harmonic series, but is squared. SIMON STEVIN CONVENIENTALLY IGNORES THIS HARMONIC SOURCE FOR THE SQUARE ROOT OF TWO. So Archytas converts this process that starts with 1:2 as 6:12 so that 6 would be A and X would be 12. Instead Archytas reduces this to a 3 term equation with no "X" so that A = 1 and C = 2 and then what had been 2:3 as 6:8 is now the RESULT of the octave as arithmetic mean (A + C divided by 2) equals 3/2. What had been 3:4 as 6:9 is now the RESULT of the octave as harmonic mean (2 x AC divided by A + C), thereby HIDING the complimentary opposite harmonics of 1:2:3:4 and replacing a doubling of the octaves with a squaring of the octaves (2 is now geometric mean squared with "half" of the octave now the square root of two as the tritone).