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That is first and foremost your fault for not knowing serum basics. The paper is, to people who understand it, directly relevant to understanding calcification dynamics in the pineal gland.
Nobody is going to hold your hand if you don't know anything about human biology. At some point you need to take responsibility for your own ignorance. Simply saying it has no relevance, does in no way indicate your ability to comprehend anything I've said thus far, nor does it mean you have anything worth proving or dis-proving.
melanin is a sort of semiconductor or even considered a superconductor
Published online before print May 21, 2012, doi: 10.1073/pnas.1119948109
PNAS June 5, 2012 vol. 109 no. 23 8943-8947
Role of semiconductivity and ion transport in the electrical conduction of melanin
Albertus B. Mostert a,
Benjamin J. Powell a,
Francis L. Pratt b,
Graeme R. Hanson c,
Tadeusz Sarna d,
Ian R. Gentle e, and
Paul Meredith a, 1
a Centre for Organic Photonics and Electronics, School of Mathematics and Physics, University of Queensland, Brisbane St. Lucia QLD 4072, Australia;
b ISIS Facility, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Chilton, Didcot OX11 0QX, United Kingdom;
c Centre for Advanced Imaging, University of Queensland, Brisbane St. Lucia QLD 4072, Australia;
d Department of Biophysics, Faculty of Biochemistry, Biophysics, and Biotechnology, Jagiellonian University, 31-007, Krakow, Poland; and
e Centre for Organic Photonics and Electronics, School of Chemistry and Molecular Biosciences, University of Queensland, Brisbane St. Lucia QLD 4072, Australia
Edited by* Brian M. Hoffman, Northwestern University, Evanston, IL, and approved April 6, 2012 (received for review December 3, 2011)
Melanins are pigmentary macromolecules found throughout the biosphere that, in the 1970s, were discovered to conduct electricity and display bistable switching. Since then, it has been widely believed that melanins are naturally occurring amorphous organic semiconductors. Here, we report electrical conductivity, muon spin relaxation, and electron paramagnetic resonance measurements of melanin as the environmental humidity is varied. We show that hydration of melanin shifts the comproportionation equilibrium so as to dope electrons and protons into the system. This equilibrium defines the relative proportions of hydroxyquinone, semiquinone, and quinone species in the macromolecule. As such, the mechanism explains why melanin at neutral pH only conducts when “wet” and suggests that both carriers play a role in the conductivity. Understanding that melanin is an electronic-ionic hybrid conductor rather than an amorphous organic semiconductor opens exciting possibilities for bioelectronic applications such as ion-to-electron transduction given its biocompatibility.
Explaining movements in daily stock prices is one of the most difficult tasks in modern finance. This paper contributes to the existing literature by documenting the impact of geomagnetic storms on daily stock market returns. A large body of psychological research has shown that geomagnetic storms have a profound effect on people’s moods, and, in turn, people’s moods have been found to be related to human behavior, judgments and decisions about risk. An important finding of this literature is that people often attribute their feelings and emotions to the wrong source, leading to incorrect judgments. Specifically, people affected by geomagnetic storms may be more inclined to sell stocks on stormy days because they incorrectly attribute their bad mood to negative economic prospects rather than bad environmental conditions. Misattribution of mood and pessimistic choices can translate into a relatively higher demand for riskless assets, causing the price of risky assets to fall or to rise less quickly than otherwise. The authors find strong empirical support in favor of a geomagnetic-storm effect in stock returns after controlling for market seasonals and other environmental and behavioral factors. Unusually high levels of geomagnetic activity have a negative, statistically and economically significant effect on the following week’s stock returns for all U.S. stock market indices. Finally, this paper provides evidence of substantially higher returns around the world during periods of quiet geomagnetic activity.
JEL classification: G1
Keywords: stock returns, geomagnetic storms, seasonal affective disorders, misattribution of mood, behavioral finance
The authors have benefited from the suggestions of Mark Kamstra, Lisa Kramer, Dan Waggoner, Dmitry Repin, Mark Fisher, Steve Smith, and Ron Zwickl. Comments from an anonymous referee and seminar participants at the Federal Reserve Bank of Atlanta, University of Virginia, Boston College, Georgia State University, George Washington University, University of Michigan, and University of Arizona are also acknowledged. The views expressed here are the authors’ and not necessarily those of the Federal Reserve Bank of Atlanta or the Federal Reserve System. Any remaining errors are the authors’ responsibility.
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