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1. Parents are more likely to use aversive techniques of discipline when they are angry or irritable, depressed, fatigued, and stressed. In 44% of those surveyed, corporal punishment was used $50% of the time because the parent had lost it. Approximately 85% expressed moderate to high anger, remorse, and agitation while punishing their children. These findings challenge most the notion that parents can spank in a calm, planned manner. It is best not to administer any punishments while in a state of anger.
2. Spanking of young children is highly correlated with continued spanking of school and adolescent children. More than half of 13- and 14-year-olds are still being hit an average eight times per year. Parents who have relied on spanking do not seem to shift strategies when the risks of detrimental effects increase with developmental age, as has been argued.
3. Spanking of preschool boys by fathers with whom the child identified only moderately or little resulted in increased aggressive behavior by those children.
4. Corporal punishment in two-parent, middle class families occurred weekly in 25%, was associated with the use of an object occasionally in 35% and half of the time in 17%, caused considerable pain at times in 12%, and inflicted lasting marks at times in 5%.
Thus, striking children in the abusive range is neither rare nor confined to families of lower socioeconomic class, as has been asserted.
5. Although children may view spanking as justified and symbolic of parental concern for them, they rate spanking as causing some or much pain in more than half of cases and generally experience anger at the adult as a result. Despite this, children come to accept spanking as a parent’s right at an early age, making changes in adult acceptance of spanking more difficult.
6. The more children are hit, the more anger they report as adults, the more they hit their own children when they are parents, the more likely they are to approve of hitting and to actually hittheir spouses, and the greater their marital conflict.
7. Although 93% of parents justify spanking, 85% say that they would rather not if they had an alternative in which they believed.
One study found that 54% of mothers said that spanking was the wrong thing to have done in at least half of the times they used it.
This ambivalence likely results in inconsistent use, which limits further its effectiveness as a teaching tool.
8. Although spanking has been shown to be effective as a back-up to enforce a time-out location, it was not more effective than use of a barrier as an alternative.
9. Even controlling for baseline antisocial behavior, the more 3- to 6-year-old children were hit, the worse their behavior when assessed 2 years later.
10. Actions causing pain such as spanking can acquire a positive value rather than the intended adversive value. Children who expect pain may actually seek it through escalating misbehaviors.
11. Parents who spank are more likely to use other forms of corporal punishment and a greater variety of verbal and other punitive methods. When punishment fails, parents who rely on it tend to increase the intensity of its use rather than to change strategies.
The study compared grade 1 students from the same urban neighbourhood whose parents were mostly civil servants, professionals and merchants. Overall, the study found that with age, children exposed to a harsh punitive environment performed significantly worse than their counterparts in the non-punitive school, and as a result may be at risk for behaviour problems related to deficits in executive functioning. The study's authors say the results show children will immediately cease bad behaviour after physical punishment, but fail to internalize the morals or rules behind the punishment.
Researchers examined the relationship between parental and children’s approval of cp and the relationship between children’s experience of cp and their preference for hitting to resolve interpersonal conflict. They conclude that parents who experienced frequent cp perceived it as acceptable and frequently spanked their own children. Their children, in turn, advocated spanking as a disciplinary method, and preferred aggressive conflict resolution strategies with peers and siblings.
Frequent use of CP (ie, mother's use of spanking more than twice in the previous month) when the child was 3 years of age was associated with increased risk for higher levels of child aggression when the child was 5 years of age even with controlling for the child's level of aggression at age 3 and potential confounding factors and key demographic features. The findings suggest that even minor forms of CP, such as spanking, increase risk for aggressive behavior and these findings cannot be attributed to possible confounding effects of other maternal parenting risk factors. The study concludes that primary prevention of violence could start with efforts to prevent use of CP by broader population-based efforts such as social marketing campaigns to strengthen the message that other discipline strategies should be used.
Murray Straus is one of North America’s foremost child psychology experts. His study finds that corporal punishment slows the development of mental ability, particularly in younger children age 2 to 6. Corporal punishment was defined for the study as hitting a child, usually on the buttocks, at least 3 times a week. 93% of mothers hit their 2-4-year-olds an average of 3.6 times a week or 187 times a year. 12.8% hit their children a least 7 times a week. The more children were spanked, the more they fell behind in cognitive development.
People who were physically abused as children are 49% more likely to develop cancer as adults. Using survey results from 13,000 people in Saskatchewan and Manitoba and adjusting for other causes of cancer, the researchers were surprised to see that the association between abuse and cancer did not disappear. A possible explanation for the link is that abused children are more prone to abnormal levels of cortisol, the hormone that helps to deal with stressful situations.
This is a concise review of one hundred years of social science research and hundreds of published studies on physical punishment by psychology, medical, education, social work and sociology professionals on the effects physical punishment has on children. It has been endorsed by American Academy of Pediatrics, American College of Emergency Room Physicians, American Medical Association and the National Association of Counsel for Children. It concludes that physical punishment doesn’t improve children’s behavior in the long term, makes it more, not less, likely that children will be defiant and aggressive in the future, puts children at risk for negative outcomes, including increased antisocial behavior and mental health problems and puts children at greater risk of serious injury and physical abuse.
This Montreal team, headed by Dr. Michael Meaney, McGill University, has discovered large numbers of "chemical marks” in the brains of young men who were physically or sexually abused as children and later committed suicide. These marks inhibit a key mechanism for dealing with stress. This is seen as the most convincing evidence yet that childhood abuse permanently modifies genes. The findings translate previous results from rats to humans and suggest a common effect of parental care on the epigenetic regulation of hippocampal glucocorticoid receptor expression. In humans, childhood abuse alters HPA stress responses and increases the risk of suicide.
The aim of the study is to test the hypothesis that societal rates of corporal punishment of children predict societal levels of violence, using data retrieved from the Standard Cross-Cultural Sample of anthropological records. These include 186 cultural groups representing diversity of language, economy, political organization, descent, and historical time. It found that more frequent use of corporal punishment was related to higher rates of inculcation of aggression in children, warfare, and interpersonal violence. The findings are consistent with theories that adult violence becomes more prevalent where cp is frequent. They held for inculcation of aggression in children and warfare after controlling for demographic, socioeconomic, and parenting confounds.
This study by social work professor Grogan-Kaylor, U-M, analyzes data on more than 1800 children from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth. Mothers were asked about their children’s behaviour and the frequency of spanking in the past week. The study concludes that even minimal amounts of spanking can lead to increased likelihood of anti-social childhood behaviors, such as cheating, lying and bullying. Stronger statistical controls than in previous studies lend additional support for the idea that corporal punishment is not an effective or appropriate disciplinary strategy
The study concludes that children of parents who use physical punishment or yelling and shouting as punitive discipline are much more likely to engage in aggressive behaviours, such as fighting, bullying and meanness to others. Children in punitive environments at age 2 to 3 years scored 39% higher on a scale of aggressive behaviour than children in non-punitive homes. Children 8 to 9 years scored 83% higher. The study shows a link between childhood aggression and poor outcomes later in life, such as delinquency, crime, poor school results and unemployment. When, however, punitive parenting changes at age 2 to 3 to non-punitive parenting, children score just as low in aggressive behaviour as those in a non-punitive environment. The study was front-page news in many Canadian papers and reinforces earlier research reaching the same conclusion.
The primary conclusion from the meta-analyses is that parental corporal punishment is associated significantly with a range of child behaviors and experiences, including short - and long-term, individual and relationship-level, and direct (physical abuse) and indirect (e.g., delinquency and antisocial behavior) constructs. Although it is related with immediate compliance, corporal punishment is associated with 10 undesirable constructs.
The following points made by the author should be noted:
• To ensure the corporal punishment considered in the meta-analyses did not include possible physical abuse, studies that grouped or compared corporal punishment with techniques that knowingly would cause severe injury to the child were excluded. For the purposes of the study, physical abuse was considered to be a potential outcome of corporal punishment and corporal punishment was distinguished from physical abuse according to the definition of physical abuse provided by the National Clearinghouse on Child Abuse and Neglect Information (2000), namely:
Physical abuse is characterized by the infliction of physical injury as a result of punching, beating, kicking, biting, burning, shaking or otherwise harming a child. The parent or caretaker may not have intended to hurt the child; rather the injury may have resulted from over-discipline or physical punishment.
Pure baseless assertion. You're simply begging the question. How do you know this? Do you have a source?
Originally posted by DaveNorris
reply to post by ALOSTSOUL
think about it, the generations that grew up without spanking, have turned into socially retarded yobs, that have no idea about how to behave. kids dont do as they are told because they respect their parents, they do as their told because they dont wanna be clipped round the ear.
spanking is essential to raise a child, as long as your not beating the crap outa your kids it should be fine, stupid nanny state telling people how to raise their kids
the ones that got 'a firm talking to' grew up to think that could get away with anything and are currently unliked by most people or in prison for various offences.
Originally posted by getreadyalready
reply to post by Onboard2
I'd rather my children mind me out of love and respect and not fear.
Either one is fine with me as long as they mind. Actually, why not all three? Why not love, and respect, and fear?
Experiences are not enough. Dreams are also experiences. Doesn't make them valid in reality. Either you have sources that prove otherwise, or you don't. I've shown you over 10. If spanking is oh so good and is oh so prevalent, it shouldn't be that hard to find a few proper scientific sources on that. As long as you can't show that, there is no reason to accept your experience as true for everyone. That would be a logical fallacy called hasty generalization.
Originally posted by DaveNorris
reply to post by vasaga
No sources, just experiance. Growing up in a village I knew most of the children in my school and how there parents treated them, the ones that got the odd slapped wrist and clip roiund the ear turned out to be respectable people, the ones that got 'a firm talking to' grew up to think that could get away with anything and are currently unliked by most people or in prison for various offences.
Look at the date physical punishment was banned, add 15-20 years and you get the start date of yob culture.
Do you teach the "why" that way? Yeah... Didn't think so..
Originally posted by ArgentumAquila
I think spanking is necessary. Yes there is physical pain. Stinging mostly, strong enough to last a few minutes and on the butt so it doesn't damage anything. But because there is some physical pain, you remember not to do those things more than if there was no pain to reinforce it. I'd say that everyone should spank their kids, except nowadays I don't think many adults would know how to do it properly. There are a lot of crappy parents out there and if they would spank, would probably be abusive, even if accidentally.
Try going over rules before-hand and give the reasons why. Trying to lecture in the moment is a lost cause, especially when the child already has done it and has seen no negative consequence, aside from your disapproval. In the end it's about building the parent/child relationship, and the child can not understand why you're doing certain things, he will not trust you, but fear you. I don't think fear is what you want the relationship to be based on. Although at least you try a few steps before resorting to spanking, try eliminating it completely.
Originally posted by guanicaPR
Do I believe in smacking my kids? Yes I do.. I'm a proud parents of 3 young boys, 12, 7, and 6. Overall they are great kids. for some reason the 12 year old I never had to spamk him.. Since I remember he is always a very good listiner. never give me a hard time. but the other 2...wow I have to keep a closer eyes on them. for example when they do something wrong I tell them and talk with them. 10 or 20 minutes latter they do it again, this time I raise my voice at them.. but when 10 or 20 minutes go by and they do it again.... I start fillming the movie roots part 2