posted on Mar, 24 2012 @ 03:39 PM
Here's how this machine I wrote up the plans for works: Two inner moving bar magnets (glued to and mounted in wheeled metal frames) repel each other
along a pair of rails. Next, two outer stationary bar magnets repel the two inner moving bar magnets back to each other. This process works
infinitely. While the inner moving bar magnets are moving they each move a long gear through a long hole in the pair of rails. Each of those long
gears turns a gear axle and each of those gears turns an axle to turn a horseshoe magnet inside of a coil of wire generating electricity. Thus
electricity can be produced forever using this machine. It would require diodes to convert the alternating currents into direct currents, and you
might want to have several of these machines in sequence so there can be a continuous supply of energy. With power amplifiers this machine might
possibly electrically power a house (each house might have one of these generators and modified if desired) and a vehicle (a person might have his/her
car powered by one of these generators).
NS--------------SN
___long gear long gear_____
____gear____gear
____axle_____axle
____NS______SN
____coil______coil
----coil-----coil
Underscores are used to make diagram appear correctly. Although this perpetual motion machine generator technically violates the laws of
thermodynamics, those laws don't account for the features of permanent magnets which all of the magnets in the machine are. What's interesting about
such a power plant is that only a small number of people (10 maybe less) would be necessary in making sure it works and guarding it from sabotage. You
might find the following link useful for determining how much electrical power you could get from this machine and you might want to research power
amplifiers. You might find the following link helpful:
www.stardrivedevice.com...
In this section, we'll concentrate on deriving some essential formulas which properly govern and define the basic operating characteristics of both
the Faraday disk dynamo and its unipolar generator variant (i.e., voltage, power, input torque, etc.). From these simple equations, we will be able to
develop some further sound engineering guidelines and appropriate design first-principles.
Voltage: While many texts will show calculus used to determine the accepted generalized formula for induced voltage in the disk machines, this
relation is much easier to derive by simple algebraic means from Faraday's own general rule of induction. top of page
[a] To wit, the magnitude of the terminal voltage induced in a conductor depends on three factors: (i) the flux density of the applied field; (ii)
the length of the conductor immersed in the field; and (iii) the velocity at which the conductor moves through the field. Taking the simple product of
all three factors yields the equation E = B l v , where E is in volts, B is the flux density in tesla (or webers/m2 ), length l is in meters, and v
is the velocity in m/sec.
In a general sense, we may let length l = r , where r is simply the full annular width of the rotor (in meters). Then, we can let the average
angular speed of rotation v = (2ð r f) / 2 , or v = ð r f , where f is the rotor's frequency of rotation in revolutions per second.
[c] Therefore, E = output voltage Vo = B r (ð r f) . And thus, nonrigorously, Vo = ð r2 f B .
[d] In reality, we must let the length l = Ra , where Ra is the radial width of the rotor's net working flux gap area (in meters). Also, we'll let
the average angular speed of rotation v = 2ð r f , where r now specifies the mean radius of the flux gap area as measured from the rotor's axis,
and f is the rotor's frequency of rotation (in rps).
[e] Then, Vo = B Ra (2ð r f ) ; and, merely rearranging terms, Vo = 2ðr Ra f B . This formula will now yield the necessary accuracy of voltage
calculation, since that portion of the rotor disk which is actually immersed in the field is properly indexed to as-specified dimensions for the field
pieces.
It is important to point out that Vo as figured by the formula just derived can actually be treated as both an open-terminal and full-load value.
It can be shown theoretically, and has been experimentally verified, that a disk dynamo or generator's rotor charge will be distributed in such a way
that its output voltage is quite constant regardless of the load current drawn, and these machines therefore behave as if they were a regulated
voltage source! top of page
Resistance: Having developed the relative radial planar-dimensional relationships for the disk devices, so that we can properly project operating
voltage, it then becomes necessary to address the issues of volume resistivity and internal rotor circuit resistance if we wish to correctly figure
the output current I (according to V = I R ) and power P (according to P = V I ) for any given size machine. No other aspect of system design is more
crucial to optimizing output or more responsible for unrealistic projections of system performance.
It's easy to see that open-terminal resistance of a disk dynamo or generator has only one seemingly major component: the resistance of at least
one pair of brushes. In virtually all cases, the resistance of the rotor disk itself is and should be entirely negligible, generally being measured in
only the single-digit micro-ohms. And, it's true, proper brush design and material selection will probably "make or break" the system's COP in most
cases. However, in addition to brush-and-rotor resistance there's another type of resistive loss that is sometimes not accounted for in design
reckoning: that of the microscopically-thin field discharge contact zone between each brush and the rotor! This is actually the primary resistance in
all Faraday disk machines; it's largely responsible for brush heating, and can be as much as 3 orders of magnitude larger than the actual brush
resistance.
It is essential in this technology to use the highest quality brushes, having very high conductivity and a low coefficient of friction (k). For
silver-graphite brushes running on silver slip rings or plated surfaces, static k is ~0.3 and dynamic k is ~ 0.2. Each brush's contact interface
resistance in such case should not exceed 0.005 ohm initially and should decrease to an average of Rz = ~ 0.003 ohm after extended open-terminal
run-in.
[a] The most convenient formula for volumetric resistance is: R = ñ L / A , where R is resistance in ohms; ñ is the volume resistivity in ohm-cm;
L is the length in the current direction, in cm; and A is the current's cross-sectional area in cm2. Appropriate use of this formula to figure brush
and rotor resistances will be illustrated in the Analysis sections below. preceding subsection top of page
Output Power: In most cases, voltage can be thought of as the primary component of electrical power, as seen in the relation given earlier above.
Thus, to maximize the output power Po of a disk dynamo or generator, we absolutely must maximize the unavoidably tiny voltage it produces. Not
considering the required input power (and torque) for the moment, it can easily be seen in the formula derived for output voltage (Vo) that the most
effective way to do this is simply to increase the rotor radius – since a major measure of its radial width is factored in twice.
At some point, however, the product of increasing rotor size and speed will result in an unacceptably high value for brush speed, and so the
maximum OEM ft./min. rating of the brush material selected will define an upper limit for the device's output voltage and its rotating inertia. Of
course, the flux density B (as the final determining factor) can be maximized to the extent permitted by the cost and availability of specialized
magnetic materials which have their own concrete natural field-strength limits.
[a] From the two formulas for power P given earlier above, it follows that P = V (V / R) = V2/ R . Therefore, by substitution, the full-load output
power Po = (2ðr Ra f B)2/ R . Of course, if output current Io has previously been calculated (since I = V / R), Po is also conveniently equal to
Io2R . In principle, however, output power should only be based on the calculated or measured value for Vo using P = VI , due to the device's constant
voltage characteristic (as discussed above).
It should be noted that metallic neodymium iron boron magnets are now available with flux densities approaching 1.42 tesla (or 14,200 gauss) This
is the world's most powerful permanent magnet material. On the other hand, the strongest nonconductive magnets generally available in large sizes are
made of sintered Ferrite 5 (BaO-6Fe2O3), a ceramic material with flux density of 0.38 tesla (3,800 gauss).
preceding subsection top of page
Input Torque & Power: Before we derive a generic formula for no-load mechanical input power (in watts) that is strictly a function of a device's
rotating inertia and variable starting time, it is important to realize that power P more fundamentally must reflect the brush and load input torque T
required, according to Pi = 2ð f Ti , and that torque is rotational force applied at a given distance from a central axis of rotation. Torque may be
expressed in newton-meters (N-m) when the power is in watts. In the Analysis sections below, a handy formula is provided for figuring applied
induction motor torque in foot-pounds (ft.-lb.) and rpm, in which case input power will be in units of horsepower (Hp) [where 1 Hp = 746 watts].
In the induction dynamo, the primary load is the 'normal' generator back-torque Ta, whose magnitude can be simply computed (by virtue of Lenz's
law) from the traditional equation for the "force on a current element in a magnetic field": F = B I L , where for present purposes I is equal to Io
(or the load current) and as before L = Ra , where Ra is the radial width of the flux gap area. The full-load back-torque due to induction may then be
found by using r once again to specify the mean radius of the flux gap area in the standard relation for torque: Ta = F r , where F will be a negative
(retarding) value in N-m. [It is important to note that: 1 N-m = 0.7376 ft.-lb. = 8.851 in.-lb.]
In an ideal disk generator, the primary load is just the dynamic friction of the brushes, although an OEM-provided value for static ('starting')
coefficient of friction must be considered. Of course, this will be a substantial source of retarding torque and secondary load in any practical
disk induction machine. Recommended values for spring pressure vs. material will allow the total brush 'drag' to be accurately computed. The negative
brush(es) will contact the rotor disk's outer edge in the design analyses we'll study below, so the full 'nominal' rotor radius Ro will be used to
figure outer brush speed and resultant counter-torque. For simplicity, we'll consider the positive brush(es) as running directly on a conductive rotor
shaft (as shown in the drawings above). The net forward force required to keep the brushes from decelerating the rotor is: F = p k A , where F is in
pounds, p is spring pressure in psi, k = coeffic. of friction, and A = total contact area in square inches. [OEM-suggested minimum spring pressure
for silver-graphite brushes is 4 psi.]
[a] No-load mechanical power to the rotor assembly is equal to the kinetic energy stored therein at a given constant operating speed divided by the
elapsed time needed to achieve that speed: So, Pr = Ek / t . Ek is in turn equal to half the product of the rotor's moment of inertia (I) and the
square of its final "run" angular velocity (ù, in radians/sec), where ù = 2ðf : Pr = [(½mRo2)(4ð2f 2/ 2)] / t . And thus, Pr = mð2R2f 2 / ts ,
where Pr is in watts, m is mass in kg, R in this case is the 'equivalent annular inertial radius' [(A/ð)1/2] of the disk* (as figured below), and ts
is "start" time in seconds.
* [It is acceptable in this case to ignore the trivial inertial moments of the shaft and two disk mounting flanges.]
Finally, once we have verified a prospective drive motor's full-load torque capability, we will use the simple power formula ts = ùI / T to see
if start time ts is acceptable for the type of motor selected. It may be of interest and value for students to know the provenance of this formula,
which is derived as follows: ù = a t , where ù = 2ðf (with f in rps), a = avg. angular acceleration, and t is the elapsed (or starting) time in
seconds; and
Also, does anyone think that it's possible to have a perpetual motion machine electricity generation of a combo of a light bulb shining light on
photovoltaic cells that are connected to power increase transformer coils to power that light bulb? I suppose there would have to be some kind of way
to start it like a battery, power supply, capacitor, etc.; and there would have to be a way to make sure it doesn't cause too much electricity that
would overload said light bulb.edit on 24-3-2012 by VoteJillSteinKatSwift2012 because: I wanted to add more text.
edit on
24-3-2012 by VoteJillSteinKatSwift2012 because: I wanted to add more text.