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The density of air at sea level is about 1.2 kg/m3 (1.2 g/L). Density is not measured directly but is calculated from measurements of temperature, pressure and humidity using the equation of state for air (a form of the ideal gas law). Atmospheric density decreases as the altitude increases. This variation can be approximately modeled using the barometric formula. More sophisticated models are used to predict orbital decay of satellites.
Originally posted by GeorgiaGirl
Interesting theory. Sounds plausible to me (as someone who loves science, but is definitely NOT an expert in these types of physics.)
Originally posted by DJW001
reply to post by TrueAmerican
The density of the atmosphere varies constantly; that is what drives weather.
Scientists have now accepted that the intersection of 2 problems - the deterioration of Earth's Magnetosphere during the Sun's Polar shift in 2012 (as recently discussed) will be the real concern as we approach 2012 : Now here's the reason why: Scientists have found two large leaks in Earth's magnetosphere, the region around our planet that shields us from severe solar storms. Now in 2012 the suns poles will reverse (not the earths as wrongly said on many 2012 sites - see below!) , during this time a massive solar storm will reck havoc on earth - usually this is no problem - but now due to the 'cracks' in it, Earth's protective Magnetosphere may fail us, so the violent solar and electromagnetic radiation will make it through and cause many problems to life as we know it (eg: disabling communication satellites, mobile phones, effective sleep patterns, & radiation poisoning of humans) Also as earth has to absorb extra radiation & energy this will cause possible changes within the earth's core - with energy being re-dissipated from the earth with new volcanoes formed and crust movement.
A Collection of Scientific Works and Comments on the HUM
It seems illogical to suppose that very low frequency radio transmissions from TCAMO aircraft can be the sole cause of the Hum, particularly in the light of the author quoting on the article’s last page, page 590, stating that there are no reports of the Hum near to even higher powered ground based vlf broadcast installations. There are two possible ways of constructively reconciling this. One would be if the HUM required an additional radio or acoustic frequency co-factor or component found at all specific HUM sites but not close to the US navy’s VLF stations. I have some experimental and anecdotal evidence that the HUM requires multiple factors for its perception, which eventually I hope to publish. A second and at this stage equally valid proposal would be that the Hum is detected by humans as a result of some kind of quantum biological process therefore the strongest E and H fields at low or whatever other frequency, see p583, might not necessarily coincide with the strongest perception of the Hum, if that is the Hum is entirely electromagnetic in origin.
I would also like to clarify the papers’ comments on the aurora. There are several references which pre-date the paper which explain sound generation by the aurora and one which purports to have audio –recorded the extremely weak sound of the aurora. Thus the aurora being a four fold emitter of sound, broad spectrum radio waves, magnetic pulsations and often light as well is nature’s electrophonic concert for the taking. Presumably the body reacts to the aurora by enhanced perception involving dueling senses. If we can begin to understand human sensitivity to the aurora we may understand the Hum as well.
Elf and vlf radio transmissions are capable of traveling for thousands of kilometers on this pretext of causality alone; it seems strange how one could escape the Hum by traveling only a few tens of miles, see page 575. In a similar vain, it is interesting to note how there seem to be these anecdotal reports refereed to in the paper of an acclimation period of uptown 48 hours when ‘hummers’ move home. The paper refers to HUM hearers having frequency matched tones in the range 40-80 Hz. A moving car generates very high levels of infrasound and low frequency noise in the range 15-200 Hz i.e encompassing the Hum range. Being a ‘hummer’ myself I have personally encountered this effect. I often have to drive to meeting about 100 miles distant and return home the same day. My wife is also a ‘hummer’ and even on occasion when the Hum is booming in according to her I cannot hear it for at least the first night I return. I believe therefore traveling noise (particularly in car) induces a sort of low frequency threshold shift (TTS) in the ear of hummers.
The concentration of carbon dioxide (CO2) in Earth's atmosphere is approximately 392 ppm (parts per million) by volume as of 2011 and rose by 2.0 ppm/yr during 2000–2009. 40 years earlier, the rise was only 0.9 ppm/yr, showing not only increasing concentrations, but also a rapid acceleration of concentrations. The increase of concentration from pre-industrial concentrations of 280 ppm has again doubled in just the last 33 years. Carbon dioxide is essential to photosynthesis in plants and other photoautotrophs, and is also a prominent greenhouse gas. Despite its relatively small overall concentration in the atmosphere, CO2 is an important component of Earth's atmosphere because it absorbs and emits infrared radiation at wavelengths of 4.26 µm (asymmetric stretching vibrational mode) and 14.99 µm (bending vibrational mode), thereby playing a role in the greenhouse effect in addition to other factors such as water vapour. The present level is higher than at any time during the last 800 thousand years, and likely higher than in the past 20 million years.
Plumes which are heavier than air because they have a higher density than the surrounding ambient air. A plume may have a higher density than air because it has a higher molecular weight than air (for example, a plume of carbon dioxide). A plume may also have a higher density than air if the plume is at a much lower temperature than the air. For example, a plume of evaporated gaseous methane from an accidental release of liquefied natural gas (LNG) may be as cold as -161 °C.