Stratospheric Particle Injection for Climate Engineering (SPICE) is a United Kingdom government-funded project that aims to assess the feasibility of injecting particles into the stratosphere from a tethered balloon for the purposes of solar radiation management.
The project investigates the feasibility of one so-called geoengineering technique: the idea of simulating natural processes that release small particles into the stratosphere, which then reflect a few percent of incoming solar radiation, with the effect of cooling the Earth with relative speed. This could produce the same type of global cooling effect as a large volcanic eruption – such as Mount Pinatubo in the Philippines in June 1991 (but without any disruption from hot lava, ash or smoke, which would not be present). In the two years following that eruption the Earth cooled on average by about half a degree Celsius.[
The project was presented to the public at the British Science Festival in Bradford, 13 September 2011 to coincide with plans to conduct the 1 km delivery system testbed in Norfolk the following month. However, this was later postponed for six months following advice from a stage–gate advisory panel to "allow more time for engagement with stakeholders".
Talking to my friends on the UK Chemtrail Groups they are having the same unusually high temperatures.
What if they are using HAARP to heat the ionosphere causing this unseasonably warm winter?
Originally posted by ConcernedCitizen01
I have been a sky watcher my entire life, ........
In Edmonton AB, we get sprayed on a regular basis with mere days of clear skies and regular contrails.
I will try to politely, and gently, stop you right here:
What if they are using HAARP to heat the ionosphere causing this unseasonably warm winter?
There is so much to cover......first, the ionosphere. Can you do some of your own research, please, about that level of Earth's atmosphere, just to begin?
Once you do that, the next step will be to try to figure out, using the science that you will learn along the way, how the ionosphere can have "any" effect on the Earth's weather, down here ...(way down here....we're talking miles and miles, kms and kms, way down here) in the troposphere.
In addition, a tunable HF receiver system having high dynamic range was developed primarily for measurements of stimulated electromagnetic emissions (SEE). A separate processor unit was constructed for the SEE receiver. Finally, a large amount of support instrumentation was developed to accommodate complex field experiments. Overall, the HAARP diagnostics are powerful tools for studying diverse ionospheric modification phenomena. They are also flexible enough to support a host of other missions beyond the scope of HAARP. Many new research programs have been initiated by applying the HAARP diagnostics to studies of natural atmospheric processes.
This project comprises five separate elements that address science and education objectives of the HAARP program. These elements are: (1) To establish the characteristics of the ionospheric source region responsible for the ELF/VLF waves generated by modulation of HAARP HF emissions, and to measure the ELF radiation pattern. (2) To attempt to stimulate hydromagnetic waves in the onospheric waveguide using the HAARP heater. (3) To develop a simulation model for the plasma physical and electromagnetic effects of localized ionospheric heating with the purpose of predicting outcomes of heating experiments and to guide the design of ew experiments. (4) Using the SuperDARN instrument on Kodiak, to examine the formation of ionospheric irregularities within the heated volume and the relationship of the irregularities to other observations such as the generation of Stimulated Electromagnetic missions. (5) To provide scientific education about HAARP and physical science in general to members of the local Copper Valley ommunity. In this report the results of research obtained to date in each of the five program elements are reviewed, and ecommendations for follow up activities are presented.
In this report we use the principal of reciprocity in conjunction with a full-wave propagation code to calculate ground-level fields excited by ionospheric currents modulated at frequencies between 50 and 100 Hz with HF heaters. Our results show the dependence on source orientation, altitude, and dimension and therefore pertain to experiments using the HIPAS or HAARP ionospheric heaters. In the end-fire mode, the waveguide excitation efficiency of an ELF HED in the ionosphere is up to 20 dB greater than for a ground-based antenna, provided its altitude does not exceed 80-to-90 km. The highest efficiency occurs for a source altitude of around 70 km; if that altitude is raised to 100 km, the efficiency drops by about 20 dB in the day and 10 dB at night. That efficiency does not account for the greater conductivity modulation that might be achieved at altitudes greater than 70 km, however. The trade-off between the altitude dependencies of the excitation efficiency and maximum achievable modulation depends on the ERP of the HF heater, the optimum altitude increasing with increasing ERP. For HIPAS the best modulation altitude is around 70 km, whereas for HAARP there might be marginal value in modulating at attitudes as high as 100 Km. Ionospheric modification, Ionospheric currents, Ionospheric heating.
Barium releases and resulting striation structures (or lack of) were observed with scintillation receivers and HF radar. Ionospheric corrections for GPS tracking of re-entry vehicles were performed for the equatorial ionosphere, and a number of auroral ionosphere experiments were carried out at Sondrestromfjord, Greenland. A scintillation diagnostic array was designed for the HAARP program.
What is claimed as new and desired to be secured by Letters Patent of the United States is:
1. Apparatus for releasing free barium atoms and barium ions in the upper atmosphere to emit resonance radiation in the form of a luminous cloud comprising:
a rocket vehicle capable of being launched into the upper atmosphere of earth, a longitudinally configured payload carried by said rocket vehicle, said payload including:
a fuel tank disposed at one end of the payload, an oxidizer tank disposed at the opposite end of the payload, and an open ended combustion chamber diametrically disposed intermediate said fuel tank and said oxidizer tank and with both ends thereof being open to the atmosphere, conduit means connecting said fuel tank and said oxidizer tank to said combustion chamber, valve means disposed in said conduit means for selectively permitting fluid flow from said fuel tank and said oxidizer tank into said combustion chamber, a liquid fuel having a quantity of barium salts dissolved therein disposed within said fuel tank, a liquid oxidizer disposed in said oxidizer tank, said liquid fuel and said liquid oxidizer having the inherent chemical property characteristics of undergoing a hypergolic reaction upon contact with each other whereby, when said valve means permit flow of said liquid fuel and said liquid oxidizer into said combusion chamber the resulting hypergolic reaction releases a high yield of luminous barium atoms and barium ions.
2. The apparatus of claim 1 wherein the liquid fuel is selected from the group consisting of hydrazine and liquid ammonia.
3. The apparatus of claim 2 wherein the barium salts contained in the liquid fuel is a mixture of barium chloride and barium nitrate.
4. The apparatus of claim 1 wherein the liquid oxidizer is selected from the group consisting of F2, OF2 and ClF3.
Several aspects of the analysis of barium ion clouds are presented including ion cloud modeling, comparison of radar and optical data, and correlation of data with theory. A quantitative model has been developed from which various properties of barium ion clouds, primarily their size, time history of the peak electron concentration, and height-integrated conductivity can be estimated. These estimates are in excellent agreement with the observations of Secede ion clouds. The modeling of the radiation transport in the ion cloud has been confirmed by a Monte Carlo calculation. The optical analysis of Spruce at R + 14 min has been corrected for effects of cloud geometry and the results for ion density are found self-consistent and in agreement with radar measurements. A summary review is given of the values and limitations of photographic data. The current status of theoretical understanding of the dynamics of barium ion clouds is reveiwed. Particular attention is given to their motion, deformation, and the properties of striations including onset time, scale size, and dissipation.
Extensive optical measurements were made of the Phenomenological Development and Structural Characteristics of five primary and four secondary high altitude barium releases of the 1971 ARPA Project SECEDE II Test Program. The objectives of these measurements were to gather data on the morphological development, details on ion cloud striations brightness profile vs time of the ion cloud emissions, and the development and motion history of the ion and neutral clouds. To this end, a wide array of photographic instrumentation was deployed at six widely separated sites. The main content of this report is a compilation of data record summaries for each site and event. Also included are several selected black and white photographs of the different events.
Project SECEDE II was a series of high-altitude barium releases made at Eglin Air Force Base, Florida, during the period from 16 January to 2 February 1971.
The current status of theoretical understanding of the dynamics of barium ion clouds is reveiwed. Particular attention is given to their motion, deformation, and the properties of striations including onset time, scale size, and dissipation.
High-resolution synchrotron x-ray diffraction imaging was used to examine the state of crystal perfection in the photorefractive ferroelectric materials barium titanate and strontium barium niobate. Ferroelectric 180 degree domains, dislocations, striations, faceted growth remnants, and other lattice features were identified. The technique was also used to image the photorefractive space charge field profile in-situ. Measurements of the field were compared with numerical simulations of the standard model of the photorefractive effect, and simulations of the x-ray image formation process. Photorefractive crystals, Synchrotron radiation, Diffraction imaging, X-Ray topography, Photorefractive gratings.
Abstract: A chemical system for releasing a good yield of free barium (Ba°) atoms and barium ions (BA+) to create ion clouds in the upper atmosphere and interplanetary space for the study of the geophysical properties of the medium.
The ionized luminous cloud of barium then becomes a visible indication of magnetic and electric characteristics in space and allows determination of these properties over relatively large areas of space at a given time compared to rocket borne or orbiting instruments.
For some time the U.S. Air Force has been concerned with NOx emissions from jet engine test cells operated by the Air Force. While there are no regulations limiting the NOx emissions of these facilities, such regulations could develop in the near future and would pose significant problems for the Air Force because no available technology is suited for application to jet engine test cells. This report describes laboratory studies of a new NOx control process based on the surprising ability of barium oxide to rapidly capture NO, a process that could be ideally suited to controlling NOx emission from jet engine test cells. Thus, experiments were done in which a simulated exhaust gas containing NO was passed through a bed of either granular barium oxide or barium oxide supported on high-strength alumina. Quantitative NO removals were achieved at space velocities ranging from 2010 to 28,000 v/v/hr temperatures from 21 deg C to 610 deg C, oxygen concentrations of 1.1 to 15.3 percent, and initial NO concentrations from 94 to 1700 ppm. When NO2 was present in the simulated exhaust, it was also removed. The barium oxide was able to capture NO and NO2 in amounts up to at least 23.5 percent of its initial weight. The practical implication is that NOx emissions of a jet engine test cell could be controlled by replacing the acoustic panels now used to decrease the cell's emission of sound with a set of panel bed filters filled with barium oxide. These panel bed filters would also absorb sound, could fit in the space in the test cell now occupied by the acoustic panels, and would remove NO and NO2 from the exhaust before it is discharged to the environment.
So, the Barium is in the exhaust system and not in the fuel.
New Technology for Controlling NOx from Jet Engine Test Cells. Phase 1