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Originally posted by Dachende
we're making threads about 4.0 earthquakes now ?
Originally posted by Druid42
reply to post by westcoast
Hey, WC, thanks for visiting. Can you get Puterman to review this info?
What's your opinion?
Friday, December 30, 2011
Earthquakes force Ohio to shut down a fracking disposal well
Another earthquake in the Youngstown area has caused the state to shut down a well that’s been taking in millions of gallons of fluid left over from the drilling process called “fracking.”
The area has experienced a series of small earthquakes since the well started operating about nine months ago. The most recent, on Christmas Eve, was two miles down and within a mile of the injection site
The Northeast Ohio seismic zone has had moderately frequent earthquakes at least since the first one was reported in 1823. The largest earthquake (magnitude 4.8) caused damage in 1986 in northeasternmost Ohio, and the most recent damaging shock (magnitude 4.5) occurred in 1998 at the seismic zone's eastern edge in northwestern Pennsylvania. Earthquakes too small to cause damage are felt two or three times per decade
The Northeast Ohio seismic zone is far from the nearest plate boundaries, which are in the center of the Atlantic Ocean and in the Caribbean Sea. The seismic zone is laced with known faults but numerous smaller or deeply buried faults remain undetected. Even the known faults are poorly located at earthquake depths. Accordingly, few, if any, earthquakes in the seismic zone can be linked to named faults. It is difficult to determine if a known fault is still active and could slip and cause an earthquake. As in most other areas east of the Rockies, the best guide to earthquake hazards in the Northeast Ohio seismic zone is the earthquakes themselves.
Examination)of)Possibly Induced Seismicity from Hydraulic Fracturing in the Eola Field, Garvin County, Oklahoma
Earthquakes are caused by hydraulic fracturing
A: Seismologists have observed that for every magnitude 6 earthquake there are 10 of magnitude 5,100 of magnitude 4,1,000 of magnitude 3, and so forth as the events get smaller and smaller. This sounds likea lot of small earthquakes,but there are never enough small ones to eliminate the occasional large event.It would take 32 magnitude 5's,1000 magnitude 4's,32,000 magnitude 3's to equal the energy of one magnitude 6 event. So, even though we always record many more small events than large ones, there are never enough to eliminate the need for the occasional large earthquake.
As for "lubricating" faults with water or some other substance, injecting high pressure fluids deep into the ground is known to be able to trigger earthquakes to occur sooner than would have been the case without the injection. However this would bea dangerous pursuit in any populated area,as one might triggera damaging earthquake.
There is definitely historical precedence for manmade causes of earthquakes in Colorado.
"This state is the biggest natural laboratory in the world for human-induced earthquakes," Matthews said. "There have been three major experiments in the state concerning human-induced events that prove human activities can indeed touch off earthquakes."
The most famous episode of a human-induced earthquake began in 1961, when a 12,000-foot disposal well was drilled in the U.S. Army's Rocky Mountain Arsenal northeast of Denver. The well was used for disposing of waste fluids from arsenal operations, and injection commenced in March 1962.
Shortly thereafter an unusual series of earthquakes erupted in the area, and by the end of December 1962 about 190 earthquakes had occurred. None caused damage until December, when several structures were damaged in Dupont and Irondale.
Over 1,300 earthquakes were recorded between January 1963 and August 1967. In April 1967 the largest earthquake since the series began in 1962 occurred, and damage was recorded in the arsenal, Derby and Boulder. This tremor measured 5.0 on the Richter scale.
Even after the Rocky Mountain Arsenal waste dumping practice stopped, earthquakes continued to be felt in the Denver area, so in 1968 the Army began removing fluid from the arsenal well very slowly in an effort to reduce the earthquake activity.
McDONALD, Ohio (AP) — Officials said Saturday they believe the latest earthquake activity in northeast Ohio is related to the injection of wastewater into the ground near a fault line, creating enough pressure to cause seismic activity.