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originally posted by: yuppa
originally posted by: Azureblue
a reply to: Thermo Klein
when is it coming onto the market, how much will it cost and what tools would be requried to work with it.
its what black triangles are made of. one way they cloak is by bending light with the graphene skin.
"He [Dallas Noyes, chemical and mechanical engineer] said, 'There's got to be a cheap way to do it because carbon is cheap and it's everywhere!'" she said. "So like all good innovators, we built a lab in the basement of the house" and began to tackle the problem. Four months later, they had produced their first carbon nanotubes.
"What that means is we can fundamentally change material science and we can take a bite out of climate change," she said.
In 2009, the couple founded Solid Carbon Products, still drawing inspiration by their son’s deployment to the Middle East as an Army Ranger and the desire to find a method of producing high-strength carbon to supply better armor to soldiers in the battlefield, Quance said.
"We can make nanoscale carbons affordably," she said. "By converting (waste carbon dioxide), we are providing at a very low cost, high-value materials that serve as performance reinforcements in plastics, resins, steel, aluminum (and) rubber."
The mesothelioma caused by long carbon nanotubes mice was in many ways similar to tumor samples from patients.
The investigators stress that the danger is posed only by types of nanomaterials that are long, thin, and biopersistent—meaning that they are not broken down inside the body: "these long, thin nanotubes are very similar to asbestos in their structural and physical characteristics," MacFarlane says. "The immune system does a good job of recognizing nanotubes that are shorter, thicker, or tangled up. They can be phagocytized by macrophages and cleared out of the body."
In detail, the team guided by Pat Thiel, an Ames Lab scientist and Distinguished Professor at Iowa State University, encapsulated dysprosium, a magnetic rare-earth metal, by bombarding the top layer of bulk graphite with ions to create defects on its surface, followed by high-temperature deposition of the metal. This resulted in “mesas” or islands of dysprosium underneath a single layer of graphene, a press release issued by the Lab explains. "The formations are significantly different than anything the Laboratory’s two-dimensional materials experts have ever seen," the statement adds.
Research Assistant Ann Lii-Rosales said that these mesas form at the top graphite surface only, and they are pure metal composed of multilayers, which is a first. On top of that, the scientists are now exploring the combined properties of the metal plus graphene, which may be very different than other, previously produced materials.
The researchers were also able to achieve the same mesa-like formations with ruthenium and copper.
“Previously, when we tested graphite or a single atomic layer of graphene, we would apply pressure and feel a very soft film,” explained Elisa Riedo, professor of physics at the ASRC and lead project researcher, on the research center’s website. “But when the graphite film was exactly two-layers thick, all of a sudden we realized that the material under pressure was becoming extremely hard and as stiff, or stiffer, than bulk diamond.”
It will be interesting to see how this impacts the future of warfare. Soldiers wearing lightweight armor that makes them almost impervious to bullets would likely cause militaries around the world to shift to other weaponry. We know the United States is looking at laser weapons, while Russia is reportedly designing a missile controlled by artificial intelligence. Ironically, effective bullet-proof armor won’t count for much if no one’s using bullets anymore.
The ORNL-led research team used the latter method—known as chemical vapor deposition, or CVD—but with a twist. In a study published in Nature Materials, they explained how localized control of the CVD process allows evolutionary, or self-selecting, growth under optimal conditions, yielding a large, single-crystal-like sheet of graphene.
Much like traditional CVD approaches to produce graphene, the researchers sprayed a gaseous mixture of hydrocarbon precursor molecules onto a metallic, polycrystalline foil. However, they carefully controlled the local deposition of the hydrocarbon molecules, bringing them directly to the edge of the emerging graphene film. As the substrate moved underneath, the carbon atoms continuously assembled as a single crystal of graphene up to a foot in length.
"The unencumbered single-crystal-like graphene growth can go almost continuously, as a roll-to-roll and beyond the foot-long samples demonstrated here," said Sergei Smirnov, coauthor and New Mexico State University professor.
The conventional method of producing graphene utilises sound energy or shearing forces to exfoliate graphene layers from graphite, and then dispersing the layers in large amounts of organic solvent. As insufficient solvent causes the graphene layers to reattach themselves back into graphite, yielding one kilogram of graphene currently requires at least one tonne of organic solvent, making the method costly and environmentally unfriendly.
The NUS-led development research team, on the other hand, uses up to 50 times less solvent. This is achieved by exfoliating pre-treated graphite under a highly alkaline condition to trigger flocculation, a process in which the graphene layers continuously cluster together to form graphene slurry without having to increase the volume of solvent. The method also introduces electrostatic repulsive forces between the graphene layers and prevents them from reattaching themselves.
Transmission lines: A new report from Navigant Research examines the global utility market for carbon nanotubes (CNTs), highlighting significant CNT characteristics and challenges for grid integration, as well as providing recommendations for utilities, vendors, and research labs.
CNTs, small tubes composed of carbon atoms, are ideal for transmission network cables and wiring. Due to their physical and chemical properties, they offer an extremely high strength-to-weight ratio and superior conductivity, however, high costs and other challenges have so far deterred adoption. According to a new report from NavigantRSRCH, CNT market players can work to change this by prioritizing scientific development and building strong relationships among market contributors.
“The utility industry stands to benefit tremendously from the conductivity and strength-to-weight characteristics of CNTs, as the tubes could be integrated into transmission and distribution (T&D) networks to enhance power delivery efficiency and reliability,” says Michael Hartnack, research analyst with Navigant Research. “With the right strategies, key players in the CNT market have the potential to improve transmission network efficiency and reliability.”
The team’s setup combines a roll-to-roll approach — a common industrial approach for continuous processing of thin foils — with the common graphene-fabrication technique of chemical vapor deposition, to manufacture high-quality graphene in large quantities and at a high rate. The system consists of two spools, connected by a conveyor belt that runs through a small furnace. The first spool unfurls a long strip of copper foil, less than 1 centimeter wide. When it enters the furnace, the foil is fed through first one tube and then another, in a “split-zone” design.
While the foil rolls through the first tube, it heats up to a certain ideal temperature, at which point it is ready to roll through the second tube, where the scientists pump in a specified ratio of methane and hydrogen gas, which are deposited onto the heated foil to produce graphene.
“Graphene starts forming in little islands, and then those islands grow together to form a continuous sheet,” Hart says. “By the time it’s out of the oven, the graphene should be fully covering the foil in one layer, kind of like a continuous bed of pizza.”
As the graphene exits the furnace, it’s rolled onto the second spool. The researchers found that they were able to feed the foil continuously through the system, producing high-quality graphene at a rate of 5 centimers per minute. Their longest run lasted almost four hours, during which they produced about 10 meters of continuous graphene.
“If this were in a factory, it would be running 24-7,” Hart says. “You would have big spools of foil feeding through, like a printing press.”
"This new composite material is an absolute game-changer in terms of reinforcing traditional concrete to meets these needs. Not only is it stronger and more durable, but it is also more resistant to water, making it uniquely suitable for construction in areas which require maintenance work and are difficult to be accessed .
“Yet perhaps more importantly, by including graphene we can reduce the amount of materials required to make concrete by around 50 per cent - leading to a significant reduction of 446kg/tonne of the carbon emissions.
“This unprecedented range of functionalities and properties uncovered are an important step in encouraging a more sustainable, environmentally-friendly construction industry worldwide.”
Previous work on using nanotechnology has concentrated on modifying existing components of cement, one of the main elements of concrete production.
In the innovative new study, the research team has created a new technique that centres on suspending atomically thin graphene in water with high yield and no defects, low cost and compatible with modern, large scale manufacturing requirements.
The reason? Carbon nanotubes are notoriously tricky to process -- especially in large quantities. About 10,000 times thinner than a human hair, the wiry, tube-shaped structures are said to be stronger than steel and conduct heat and electricity far better than copper. But when mass produced -- usually in the form of powders -- the tubes twist and clump together. This complication is a major barrier to the material's widespread applications.
By contrast, Huang's team [Northwestern University] found that cresol does not deteriorate carbon nanotubes' surface functions. And, after separating the entangled tubes, researchers can simply remove the chemical by washing it off or heating it until it evaporates.
...As the concentration of carbon nanotubes increases, the material transitions from a dilute dispersion to a spreadable paste to a free-standing gel and finally to a kneadable dough. These various forms can be molded, reshaped or used as conductive ink for 3D printing.
"The dough state of nanotubes is fascinating," said Kevin Chiou, a graduate student in Huang's laboratory and first author of the paper. "It can be readily shaped and molded into arbitrary structures just like playdough."
Cresols are precursors or synthetic intermediates to other compounds and materials, including plastics, pesticides, pharmaceuticals, and dyes.
Most recently, cresols have been used to create a breakthrough in manufacturing carbon nanotubes at scale that are separated and not twisted, without additional chemicals that change the surface properties of the nanotubes according to sciencedaily.com.
The other groundbreaking benefit of optical graphene stimulation is the ability to nuke cancerous cells without damaging neighboring healthy cells. According to the study, the electrical resting potential (ERP) of cancer cells is normally lower than healthy body cells.
This implies that the cancerous cells are more vulnerable to electrical stimulation that opens their ion channels. Exposing the malignant cells to such a lethal influx of ions for a sufficiently long period can kill them completely without harming the healthy cells in the vicinity.
Grolltex, short for ‘graphene-rolling-technologies’, uses patented research and techniques initially developed at the University of California, San Diego, to produce high quality, single layer graphene, hexagonal Boron Nitride and other 2D materials and products. The company is a practitioner of, and specializes in, exclusively sustainable graphene production methods and is committed to advancing the field of graphene to improve the future of leading edge materials science and product design through the optimization of single atom thick materials.
The company began shipping the new material to pre-qualified customers in May and is now selling large area mono layer hBN to the public, in both ‘standalone’ and ‘layered with graphene’ configurations. Additionally, Grolltex is providing ‘hBN on your substrate’ as a service to device makers.
Previously, researchers could only print this material, known as graphene, in 2D sheets or basic structures. But engineers have now 3-D printed graphene objects at a resolution an order of magnitude greater than ever before printed, which unlocks the ability to theoretically create any size or shape of graphene.
BSI, the business standards company, has published a new guide to the properties of graphene flakes, PAS 1201. The guide, which is free to download, provides an explanation of the physical and chemical properties of graphene flakes, and advice on information manufacturers and suppliers of graphene should give to prospective users.
PAS 1201:2018 Properties of Graphene Flakes – guide was sponsored by Innovate UK. The following organizations were also involved in its development as members of the Steering group: BAE Systems; Cambridge Nanomaterials Technology Ltd; Centre for Process Innovation Limited; DZP Technologies Ltd; Haydale; Iceni Labs Limited; Knowledge Transfer Network; National Physical Laboratory (NPL); PVI Industries; Thomas Swan & Co. Ltd; University of Warwick; Versarien plc.
NOTE: This PAS does not cover related graphene forms such as graphene oxide (GO) graphene sheet and graphene hybrids. Nor does it cover the properties or performance of formulations and intermediates containing graphene flakes.
BSI Shop, PAS1201 download page.