It looks like you're using an Ad Blocker.
Please white-list or disable AboveTopSecret.com in your ad-blocking tool.
Some features of ATS will be disabled while you continue to use an ad-blocker.
The efforts of the company in administering India emerged as a model for the civil service system in Britain, especially during the 19th century. Deprived of its trade monopoly in 1813, the company wound up as a trading enterprise. In 1858 the Company lost its administrative functions to the British government following the Sepoy Mutiny of the preceding year, and India became a formal crown colony. In the early 1860s all of the Company's Indian possessions were appropriated by the Crown. The Company was still managing tea trade on behalf of the British government (especially to Saint Helena). Left with such commercial operations for the remainder of its existence, it continued to maintain a trading office in London as of 2004. When the Company was dissolved in 1874, The Times reported, "It accomplished a work such as in the whole history of the human race no other company ever attempted and as such is ever likely to attempt in the years to come."
The term New World Order (NWO) has been used by numerous politicians through the ages, and is a generic term used to refer to a worldwide conspiracy being orchestrated by an extremely powerful and influential group of genetically-related individuals (at least at the highest echelons) which include many of the world's wealthiest people, top political leaders, and corporate elite, as well as members of the so-called Black Nobility of Europe (dominated by the British Crown) whose goal is to create a One World (fascist) Government, stripped of nationalistic and regional boundaries, that is obedient to their agenda.
The term New World Order refers to a belief or conspiracy theory among apocalyptic religious and political extremist groups, especially in the United States, that the United Nations has created a secret plan, known as the New World Order (NWO), to rule the world via a totalitarian socialist world government.
The term New World Order has been used several times in recent history, referring to what appeared to be a dramatic change in world political thought and the balance of power.
President George Bush made the concept of our "New World Order" popular. He defined this new and different World Order as the accumulated set of precedents that he was setting in his own Presidency in the area of foreign affairs.
November 27, 1773, three ships loaded with such tea landed at Boston and were prevented from unloading their cargo. Fearing that the tea would be seized for failure to pay customs duties, and eventually become available for sale, Adams and the Boston Whigs arranged a solution. On the night of 16DEC73, a group of colonists, thinly disguised as Mohawk Indians, snuck aboard the ships and dumped 342 chests of tea in to Boston Harbor.
Worcester Polytechnic Institute
Initially, however, it made little impression on the Dutch control of the Spice trade and could not establish a lasting outpost in the East Indies in the early years. Yet it succeeded beyond measure in establishing military dominance and a political empire for Britain in the East, gaining strongholds in the 17th century in Surat, Bombay (1668), Madras (1639) and Calcutta.
In 1711, the Company established a trading post in Canton (Guangzhou), in China to trade tea for silver.
In 1757 Robert Clive led company forces to victory at the Battle of Plassey during the Seven Years' War. This victory achieved British supremacy over the French on the Indian subcontinent and allowed the company to take effective control of Bengal, India's most populous and lucrative province.
In the 1770's, British attempts to extend the Company's monopoly on tea to the American colonies lead to the Boston Tea Party and was one of the factors leading the American Revolution.
In the years 1775-1783 North America gained independence from Great Britain, imperial focus was brought across the globe to India where it was the center of colonial interest for the first time. The Eastern British armies at home swelled as did those of the East India company.
This article is from Wikipedia
The tree of knowledge in my mind, is the equivelant of our modern day "drugs" like mushrooms
The British East India Company assumes control of Bengal and Bihar, opium-growing districts of India. British shipping dominates the opium trade out of Calcutta to China.
The British East India Company's import of opium to China reaches a staggering two thousand chests of opium per year.
The British East India Company establishes a monopoly on the opium trade. All poppy growers in India were forbidden to sell opium to competitor trading companies.
After the petals fall from the poppy, the pod, which is about the size of a golf ball, is lanced, and the opium latex is exuded.
Poppies are lanced in the afternoonand the latex is scraped off the next morning. Peasants hope for calm, dry days during lancing season. Rain washes the latex off the pod, while friction of pods in the wind rubs the latex off . Pods ripen (soften) at different times in the field. Each pod can be lanced from 4 to 7 times. The lancing takes a great deal of time and attention.
One-tenth of a hectare produces small amounts of latex.
Remember yields in India are 35-60 kgs per ha, with peasants struck off cultivation rolls if they produce less than 34:
some selected passages . . .
International Bulletin of Missionary Research; 7/1/1999; Smith, A. Christopher
The Baptist mission in Calcutta, India can trace its roots back to the missionary work of William Carey and his colleagues William Ward and Joshua and Hannah Marshman. Carey was an Englishman who reached Bengal in 1793 and was responsible for the establishment of a Baptist mission in Serampore. Ward, on the other hand, ventured into missionary work because of the Savior's command written in Matthew 28:18-20. The Marshman couple got their start in missionary work under the auspices of the Baptist Missionary Society when they were sent to Bengal in 1799.
. . .
During the next six months, Ward developed good relations with Baptist churches in the Midlands and with BMS leaders such as Fuller and Samuel Pearce. In May 1799 he was "set apart to the work of a Christian Missionary" in the Baptist church of Olney, which had featured significantly in Carey's ministerial formation. At that memorable service, he declared that it was not because of some "new revelation" that he was prepared to serve the Lord overseas, nor did he need one. Rather, it was because of the Redeemer's command in Matthew 28:18-20 that he now ventured forth.
In May 1799 Ward testified that he was ready to leave his homeland for India, counting his life as nothing for the sake of the Gospel (Acts 20:24). His peers were of much the same mind. During their long voyage out on the American ship, they read much. Ward wrote tellingly in his journal: "Thank you, ye Moravians: you have done me good. If I am ever a missionary worth a straw, I shall owe it to you under our Saviour."
(time went on with the missionary effort)
In 1820 Ward and his partners noted that "the Hindoos themselves, amidst very much which is positively evil, have precepts in their books which a Christian would not be dishonoured by observing"; yet they were rather pessimistic about the possibility of making much use of such potential points of contact. This tone is apparent in their dispatches back to Britain, in which confrontation in a crusading mode continued to dominate the missionary agenda, in spite of vows to avoid controversial language when preaching the Gospel. This combativeness appears in Ward's forthright Account of the Writings, Religion, and Manners of the Hindoos (1811), which was "approved by his two elder colleagues" and by some outspoken evangelical Dissenters. But Ward was by no means an undiscriminating iconoclast. Witness the public recommendation he made in 1818 for setting up a museum-like pantheon of Hindu images and sculptured monuments in London, England!
But 1823 signified the end for Ward. He had just begun writing a treatise on the character of a Christian missionary when his life was cut short.
(as happened all too often in the service of John Company even the good died much too soon.)
biblio of the religious movement to date- Sept. 10, 2004
Ward's History, Literature, and Mythology of the Hindoos- five editions and a number of reprints, under various titles, between 1806 and 1863, in both India and Britain. His Farewell Letters to a Few Friends in Britain and America on Returning to Bengal in 1821 went through several editions (in London) in 1821.
Samuel Stennet, Memoirs of the Life of the Rev. William Ward, 2d ed. (1825). For an illuminating study of Ward's life before he became a missionary, see A. Christopher Smith, "William Ward, Radical Reform, and Missions in the 1790s," American Baptist Quarterly 10 (1991): 218-44.
Marshman's letters, papers, and publications are in the archives of the Baptist Missionary Society, housed in Regent's Park College, Oxford, England. Hints Relative to Native Schools (1816), Thoughts on Propagating Christianity More Effectually Among the Heathen (1827), and Brief Memoir Relative to the Operations of the Serampore Missionaries, Bengal (1827).
The Historian; 3/22/2001; HARNETTY, PETER
The visit of Pope John Paul II to India in November 1999 brought to international attention an issue that has disturbed Indians and other Asians almost from the beginning of the Western contact: religious conversion. In a major address, the pope boldly declared the evangelization of Asia to be one of his Church's top priorities for the next millennium, a prospect that found little favor with Indian religious leaders. The moderate Hindu leader Shankaracharya Madhavananda Saraswati, though welcoming the pope personally, expressed misgivings about Christian evangelization, and prominent Buddhists and members of the Jain religion shared his skepticism. Hindu fundamentalists accused Christian missionaries--most active in poor rural and tribal areas--of preying on the most susceptible in Indian society and "buying" their souls with education, medical aid, and economic assistance. Equating conversion with colonialism, they claimed missionaries were "enslaving the country once again" and accused them of deceit in their quest for converts. Even Mahatma Gandhi, while appreciative of missionaries' zeal and self-sacrifice, had opposed the political aspect of the missionary effort because of its association with the foreign government. If he had the power, Gandhi said in 1935, he would certainly legislate to stop all proselytizing.
. . . .
Higginbottom assumed that similar conditions prevailed all over the country and concluded, "a conservative estimate for the whole of India would be ten per cent. which means thirty-two millions, or many more deaths than the total casualties on all the battle fronts during all the years of the great war.
The result has been a rise in the number of clashes between Christian missionary organizations and Hindus who oppose their activities; in some cases the authorities have attempted to proscribe missionary activity altogether. At a deeper level, the conflict between the urge to spread the Christian gospel and the resentment such efforts provoke reflects the contrast between Western values and those of India. In the West, freedom of religion is a fundamental value and conversion from one religion to another an ancillary right. But the doctrine of the monopoly of truth and revelation implied in this concept is alien to the Hindu mind. For most Hindus the Western view was encapsulated in the famous Christian hymn, "From Greenland's Icy Mountains," composed by an Anglican bishop of Calcutta in the early nineteenth century, with its call to deliver India (and other benighted lands) "from error's chain." Whether from early nineteenth-century Anglican bishop or late twentieth-century Catholic pope, such sentiments continue to be viewed by Hindus as they once were by Mahatma Gandhi: "a clear libel on Indian humanity.
biblio for this section:
New York Times, 8 November 1999, A3; India and the Pope: Preachers and Souls,
Deploring Conversions, Harijan, 22 March 1935, in Collected Works of Mahatma Gandhi, vol. 60 (Delhi, 1974), 327; Interview to a Missionary Nurse, May 1935, in Collected Works, vol. 61 (1975), 46; Letter to Rev. B. W. Tucker, an American missionary, 4 July 1928, in Collected Works, vol. 37 (1970), 18.
India's Famine Spreading, Christian Herald, 22 January 1919, 90; and 8 February 1919, 141.
InfoPlease British East India Company
Company rule until 1857. 100 years of John Company's exploits(abbreviated)
The railroads did not break down the social or cultural distances between various groups but tended to create new categories in travel. Separate compartments in the trains were reserved exclusively for the ruling class, separating the educated and wealthy from ordinary people. Similarly, when the Sepoy Rebellion was quelled in 1858, a British official exclaimed that "the telegraph saved India." He envisaged, of course, that British interests in India would continue indefinitely. (Nationmaster)
(Wikipedia) Dutch East Indies:
In 1652, Jan van Riebeeck established a post at the Cape of Good Hope (south end of Africa, currently in South Africa) to resupply VOC ships on their journey to East Asia. This post later became a conventional colony when other Europeans started to settle there. VOC trade posts were also established in Persia (now Iran), Bengal (now Bangladesh and part of India), Ceylon (now Sri Lanka), Malacca (Melaka, now in Malaysia), Siam (now Thailand), mainland China (Kanton), Formosa (now Taiwan) and southern India. In 1662, Koxinga expelled the Dutch from Taiwan. By 1669, the VOC was the richest company the world had ever seen, with over 150 merchant ships, 40 warships, 50,000 employees, a private army of 10,000 soldiers, and paid a dividend of 40%.
Dutch traders, in search of an Asian base first claimed the island in 1624 as a base for Dutch commerce with Japan and the Chinese coast. Two years later, the Spanish established a settlement at Santissima Trinidad on the northwest coast of Taiwan near Keelung, which they occupied until 1642 when they were driven out by the Dutch. The Dutch East India Company (VOC) administered the island and its predominantly aboriginal population until 1662, setting up a tax system, schools to teach romanized script of aboriginal languages and evangelizing. Although its control was mainly limited to the southwest and north of the island, the Dutch systems were adopted by succeeding occupiers. The first influx of migrants from the China came during the Dutch period, in which merchants and traders from China sought to purchase hunting licensed from the Dutch or hide out in aboriginal villages to escape the authorities in China. Most of the immigrants were young single males who were discouraged from staying on the island often referred to by Chinese as "The Gate of Hell" for its reputation in taking the lives of sailors and explorers.
(Wikipedia) In 1661, Koxinga led his troops to a landing at Lu'ermen to attack Taiwan. By the end of the year, he had chased out the Dutch, who had controlled Taiwan for 38 years. Koxinga had devoted himself to making Taiwan into an effective base for anti-Qing sympathizers who wanted to restore the Ming Dynasty to power. He died suddenly at the age of 39 in a fit of madness.
At one time, nutmeg was one of the most valuable spices. It has been said that in England, several hundred years ago, a few nutmeg nuts could be sold for enough money to enable financial independence for life.