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TextThe electric flux through any closed surface is proportional to the enclosed electric charge. The law was formulated by Carl Friedrich Gauss in 1835, but was not published until 1867. It is one of the four Maxwell's equations which form the basis of classical electrodynamics, the other three being Gauss's law for magnetism, Faraday's law of induction, and Ampère's law with Maxwell's correction. Gauss's law can be used to derive Coulomb's law, and vice versa. Gauss's law may be expressed as: where is the electric flux through a closed surface S, Q is the total charge enclosed within S, and ε0 is the electric constant. The electric flux is defined as a surface integral of the electric field: Because the flux is defined as an integral of the electric field, this expression of Gauss's law is called the integral form. Gauss's law can alternatively be written in the differential form: where ∇ · E is the divergence of the electric field, and ρ is the charge density. The integral and differential forms are related by the divergence theorem, also called Gauss's theorem. Each of these forms can also be expressed two ways: In terms of a relation between the electric field E and the total electric charge, or in terms of the electric displacement field D and the free electric charge. Gauss's law has a close mathematical similarity with a number of laws in other areas of physics, such as Gauss's law for magnetism and Gauss's law for gravity. In fact, any "inverse-square law" can be formulated in a way similar to Gauss's law: For example, Gauss's law itself is essentially equivalent to the inverse-square Coulomb's law, and Gauss's law for gravity is essentially equivalent to the inverse-square Newton's law of gravity. Gauss's law can be used to demonstrate that all electric fields inside a Faraday cage have an electric charge. Gauss's law is something of an electrical analogue of Ampère's law, which deals with magnetism.
Originally posted by lyons666
so what all should be expected when it gets here, besides the light show of auroras?
Originally posted by diamondsmith
off site content,
"1960 AD - Gold and Hoyle: energy released in a flare previously stored in magnetic field.
1960 AD - Moreton observes flare explosion produces waves in the solar atmosphere.
1961 AD - Magnetopause boundary detected by Explorer 10 spacecraft.
1962 AD - Warwick discovers Polar Cap Absorption related to 10 million-Volt particles.
1963 AD - Eugene Parker calculates how magnetic reconnection might work in a solar flare.
1963 AD - Type IV radio flares are found to be related to proton acceleration.
1963 AD - Furth proposes a new process that leads to solar flares.
1964 AD - Petscheck concludes reconnection easily happens as fast as actual flare events.
1965 AD - AMPTE satellite detects the ring current
1966 AD - Fairfield and Cahill show magnetic activity determined by polarity of solar wind.
1967 AD - Alfven and Carlquist propose 'current disruption' process that act quickly.
1968 AD - OGO-5 satellite detects magnetic activity in the geotail region
1968 AD - Akasofu proposes that 'magnetic substorm' describe auroral changes
1968 AD - Bumba shows flares are common where two sunspot groups are merging.
1968 AD - Axford proposes a polar wind to replenish the plasmasphere
1968 AD - David Rust confirms that explosions occur in magnetic fields of sunspots.
1971 AD - Najita proposes hite light flares caused by bombardment of upper photosphere.
1971 AD - Lin and Hudson propose hard X-ray burst evidence for 100,000 volt electron beams.
1971 AD - Brown proposes flare model where electrical current flow down a magnetic loop.
1971 AD - OSO-7 satellite discovers 'Coronal transients'
1972 AD - August 4 - Apollo 17 major flare. Could have been lethal if astronauts in space.
1974 AD - Altschuler shows coronal magnetic field changes drastically around a flare region.
1989 AD - March 8-13 Major solar flare, X15 - Quebec Electrical Blackout
2001 AD - April 2 - Solar flare X20 - major flare
2003 AD - November 4 - Major X28 flare ends a period of solar storms which began October 28th.
2003 AD - November 11 Solar flare reproduced under laboratory conditions."source(www.solarstorms.org...edit on 30-12-2011 by diamondsmith because: f
Originally posted by lasertaglover
ANOTHER SOLAR FLARE: Earth-orbiting satellites have just detected an M9-class solar flare from sunspot 1402. The explosion, which peaked at 0359 UT on Jan. 23rd, likely hurled a coronal mass ejection toward Earth. Stay tuned for updates as more data from several spacecraft arrive.