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These studies demonstrate that protein-enriched meals replacements as compared to standard meal replacements recommended for weight management do not have adverse effects on routine measures of liver function, renal function or bone density at one year.
This study provides preliminary evidence that long-term weight loss with a very-low-carbohydrate diet does not adversely affect renal function compared with a high-carbohydrate diet in obese individuals with normal renal function.
Originally posted by TiredofControlFreaks
Just to clarify, can you verify if this correct:
1. A high carb diet is one where the caloric contribution from carbs is greater than 50 % of the daily total
2. A moderate carb diet is one where the caloric contribution from carbs is greater than 30 % of the daily total
3. A low carb diet is one where the caloric contribution from carbs is anything less than 30 % of the daily total and can be as low as 5 %
4 The difference in the caloric contribution from carbs in a low or moderate carb diet from a high carb diet is contributed by some combination of increased calories from fat and protein
5. A simple carb is one that is high on the glycemic index and readily enters the blood stream as sugar (ie fruit)
6. A complex carb is one that is lower on the glycymic index and requires some digestion before it enters the blood stream as sugar. (whole grain bread)
Historically nutritionists have classified carbohydrates as either simple or complex. However, the exact delineation of these categories is ambiguous. Today, simple carbohydrate typically refers to monosaccharides and disaccharides and complex carbohydrate means polysaccharides (and oligosaccharides). However, the term complex carbohydrate was first used in slightly different context in the U.S. Senate Select Committee on Nutrition and Human Needs publication Dietary Goals for the United States (1977). In this work, complex carbohydrate were defined as "fruit, vegetables and whole-grains". Some nutritionists use complex carbohydrate to refer to any sort of digestible saccharide present in a whole food, where fiber, vitamins and minerals are also found (as opposed to processed carbohydrates, which provide calories but few other nutrients).
Some simple carbohydrates (e.g. fructose) are digested very slowly, while some complex carbohydrates (starches), especially if processed, raise blood sugar rapidly. The speed of digestion is determined by a variety of factors including which other nutrients are consumed with the carbohydrate, how the food is prepared, individual differences in metabolism, and the chemistry of the carbohydrate. The USDA's Dietary Guidelines for Americans 2005 dispensed with the simple/complex distinction, instead recommending fiber-rich foods and whole grains.
The glycemic index (GI) and glycemic load concepts have been developed to characterize food behavior during human digestion. They rank carbohydrate-rich foods based on the rapidity and magnitude of their effect on blood glucose levels. Glycemic index is a measure of how quickly food glucose is absorbed, while glycemic load is a measure of the total absorbable glucose in foods. The insulin index is a similar, more recent classification method that ranks foods based on their effects on blood insulin levels, which are caused by glucose (or starch) and some amino acids in food.