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Unix (officially trademarked as UNIX, sometimes also written as Unix) is a multitasking, multi-user computer operating system originally developed in 1969 by a group of AT&T employees atBell Labs, including Ken Thompson, Dennis Ritchie, Brian Kernighan, Douglas McIlroy, and Joe Ossanna.
The Unix operating system was first developed in assembly language, but by 1973 had been almost entirely recoded in C, greatly facilitating its further development and porting to other hardware. Today's Unix systems are split into various branches, developed over time by AT&T as well as various commercial vendors and non-profit organizations.
Unix operating systems are widely used in servers, workstations, and mobile devices. The Unix environment and the client–server program model were essential elements in the development of the Internet and the reshaping of computing as centered in networks rather than in individual computers.
Originally, Unix was meant to be a programmer's workbench rather than be used to run application software. The system grew larger when the operating system started spreading in the academic circle. Many individual users started adding their own tools to the system and passing it along to colleagues.
SCADA (supervisory control and data acquisition) generally refers to industrial control systems (ICS): computer systems that monitor and control industrial, infrastructure, or facility-based processes, as described below:
Industrial processes include those of manufacturing, production, power generation, fabrication, and refining, and may run in continuous, batch, repetitive, or discrete modes.
Infrastructure processes may be public or private, and include water treatment and distribution, wastewater collection and treatment, oil and gas pipelines, electrical power transmission and distribution, Wind farms, civil defense sirensystems, and large communication systems.
Facility processes occur both in public facilities and private ones, including buildings, airports, ships, and
space stations. They monitor and control HVAC, access, and energy consumption.
SCADA master computers typically run on top of a third party operating system. Nearly all SCADA products run on either a UNIX variant or HP OpenVMS, although many vendors are beginning to provide Microsoft Windows as a host operating system option.
Initially, more "open" platforms such as Linux were not as widely used due to the highly dynamic development environment and because a SCADA customer that was able to afford the field hardware and devices to be controlled could usually also purchase UNIX or OpenVMS licenses. However, in recent years all SCADA vendors have moved to NT and some also to Linux.
Stuxnet is a computer worm discovered in June 2010. It targets Siemens industrial software and equipment running on Microsoft Windows. While it is not the first time that crackers have targeted industrial systems, it is the first discovered malware that spies on and subverts industrial systems, and the first to include a programmable logic controller (PLC) rootkit.
The worm initially spreads indiscriminately, but includes a highly specialized malware payload that is designed to target only Siemens supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) systems that are configured to control and monitor specific industrial processes. Stuxnet infects PLCs by subverting the Step-7 software application that is used to reprogram these devices.
Let us see some other systems.
A while back now, but many of the same systems are in place in the same way, I was contracted to test the systems on a Boeing 747. They had added a new video system that ran over IP. They segregated this from the control systems using layer 2 - VLANs. We managed to break the VLANs and access other systems and with source routing could access the Engine management systems. The response, "the engine management system is out of scope."
For those who do not know, 747's are big flying Unix hosts. At the time, the engine management system on this particular airline was Solaris based. The patching was well behind and they used telnet as SSH broke the menus and the budget did not extend to fixing this. The engineers could actually access the engine management system of a 747 in route. If issues are noted, they can re-tune the engine in air.
The issue here is that all that separated the engine control systems and the open network was NAT based filters. There were (and as far as I know this is true today), no extrusion controls. They filter incoming traffic, but all outgoing traffic is allowed. For those who engage in Pen Testing and know what a shoveled shell is... I need not say more.
So, Scot... FACT CHECK, SCADA systems ARE ONLINE!
Nearly all SCADA systems are online. The addition of a simple NAT device is NOT a control. Most of these systems are horribly patched and some run DOS, Win 95, Win 98 and even old Unixs. Some are on outdated versions of VMS. One I know of is on a Cray and another is on a PDP-11.
In 2000 I contracted to the Sydney Olympic authority. To make the Olympics run smoothly, they NSW government officials decided to connect control systems into a central head-quarters. We linked:
Emergency response systems / Police
The move from proprietary technologies to more standardized and open solutions together with the increased number of connections between SCADA systems and office networks and the Internet has made them more vulnerable to attacks. Consequently, the security of some SCADA-based systems has come into question as they are seen as potentially vulnerable to cyber attacks.
-In particular, security researchers are concerned about:
-the lack of concern about security and authentication in the design, deployment and operation of some existing SCADA networks
-the belief that SCADA systems have the benefit of security through obscurity through the use of specialized protocols and proprietary interfaces
-the belief that SCADA networks are secure because they are physically secured
-the belief that SCADA networks are secure because they are disconnected from the Internet. ( ED: They are NOT. Please refer to Craig's article)
What are you smoking. SCADA isn't running UNIX. UNIX is the host operating system. SCADA is a program that runs on either UNIX or Windows.
Apparently also some SCADA units are also Remote Terminal Units or Programmable Logic Controllers. Some of those devices are rom based or cassette programmed devices. They don't run an OS.
Screaming that 747's run UNIX and are going to be infected and are going to fall out of the sky on bus loads filled with nuns and children is a bit on the alarmist side.
I don't know whats scarier... that someone was stupid enough to have overlooked this or that it appears to be intentional.
Emergency response systems / Police
You better remember that Stuxnet was being used only in Siemens PLCs. So it doesn't mean that every SCADA system will be affected by Stuxnet.
AS far as I know ever piece of Artificial Intelligence we see is controlling some thing.
I think that you are affected by the movie : 2001 Space Odyssey by s.Kubric.
There are lots of possibilities in today's lives but we talk about them as we find a great probability. i.e It is possible that your CPU overheat and your computer case melt. But is not logical and greatly probable.