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These researchers discovered that the molecule that induces hibernation is adenosine, which is produced by all animals, including humans. When adenosine attaches itself to receptors in the brain, it causes the animal to feel sleepy. But in hibernating animals like the arctic ground squirrel, during hibernation season the body produces a huge amount of adenosine, which triggers a much more intense form of sleep--torpor, or hibernation. From that discovery, the scientists created an artificial form of adenosine as well as a synthetic version of caffeine, which was expected to have the opposite effect.