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The paper says the rising temperature of ocean water is causing a proliferation of the Vibrio genus of bacteria, which can cause food poisoning, serious gastroenteritis, septicemia and cholera.
"Millions of euros in health costs may result from human consumption of contaminated seafood, ingestion of waterborne pathogens, and, to a lesser degree, though direct occupational or recreational exposure to marine disease," says the paper. "Climatic conditions are playing an increasingly important role in the transmission of these diseases."
It is not only the range of changes that has scientists concerned, but the speed of them.
"The biggest surprise to me is the fact that things are changing in the ocean much more rapidly than we thought was possible," said Carlo Heip, who is director of the same institute in the Netherlands.
In the Baltic region in 2006, far more people got gastroenteritis than usual, Heip said. But he acknowledged that is anecdotal evidence only, and the extent of the danger is unclear.
Originally posted by DavidsHope
reply to post by Afterthought
In the words of George Carlin. "it's simply going to be the Earth Plus Plastic"
Every bacterium has a set of genes that completely describe the bacterium, and which dictate the physical, chemical and biological characteristics of the bacterium. These genes are made of the chemicals DNA and RNA. This set of genes is known as the genotype of the bacterium. Usually, when a parent bacterium splits into two bacteria, the two progeny bacteria are genetically identical, i.e. they have the same genotype.
However, this is not always the case. There are several situations in which the genes(genotype) of a bacterium can change.
Mutation. Mutation happens when there is a genetic "error" in the copying of the genes from parent to progeny bacterium. This results in a progeny bacterium which has a different genotype to that of its parent. Mutation rates vary between different genus and species of bacteria. Statistically, random mutations may occur as often as one in every million multiplications, or as seldom as one in every billion multiplications. However, since most bacterial populations in the human body number well into the millions, if not billions, the chances are that there will be many mutations with each new generation.
Transduction. Bacteria, like humans, can be attacked by viruses. These bacterial viruses are known as bacteriophages. These bacteriophages invade bacteria, and can change their DNA. They may also carry DNA from one bacterium to another. These actions alter the genotype of the bacterium. This process is known as Transduction.
Conjugation. Sometimes bacteria may join together and exchange DNA. This changes the genotype of the bacteria. This process is known as Conjugation.
Why are the above important? Because they allow the bacteria to adapt to their environment. Changes in the genotype may allow the bacteria to obtain nutrition from sources they were unable to feed from before, they may allow the bacteria to survive in a more hostile environment, and they may allow the bacteria to avoid the action of destructive chemicals (e.g. anti-biotics) or allow them to produce chemicals that protect from attack by organisms that are capable of destroying them.
Radiation-resistant bacteria encompass eight species of bacteria in a genus known as Deinococcus. The prototype species is Deinococcus radiodurans. This and the other species are capable of not only survival but of growth in the presence of radiation that is lethal to all other known forms of life.
An instantaneous dose of 500 to 1000 rads of gamma radiation is lethal to a human. However, Deinococcus radiodurans is unaffected by exposure to up to 3 million rads of gamma radiation. Indeed, the bacterium, whose name translates to "strange berry that withstands radiation," holds a place in The Guinness Book of World Records as "the world's toughest bacterium."
E. coli love moderate temperatures around 37 C (98.6 F), and a neutral pH of 7. The sulfur-oxidizing hyperthermophile Sulfolobus shibatae grows best at an extremely acidic pH of 2 and at temperatures around 80 C (176 F). D. radiodurans can survive the harsh ionizing and ultra-violet radiation of space, as well as extreme cold, vacuum conditions, and oxidative damage.
The distorted infrared readings indicate that the colored patches are composed of water bound to some other material. Many scientists believe that a mixture of salt minerals or sulfuric acid contained in the ice best explains the spectra. The salts could be further evidence of a salty ocean lying beneath the ice, as is indicated by magnetometer data from the Galileo spacecraft.
Thirty-eight of the 61 isolates of bacteria obtained from diseased and healthy sunflower leaves inhibited the germination of conidia and growth of germ-tubes of Alternaria helianthi in vitro. Inhibition included reduced conidial germination, germ-tube swelling causing vesicle formation, excessive germ-tube branching, lysis of germ-tubes, absence of sporulation and a reduced rate of hyphal growth. Some bacteria appeared to be endoparasitic, persisting inside the lumina of conidia and causing erosion of the conidium wall which resulted in the destruction of conidial cells. Bacteria attached themselves to conidia, hyphae and conidiophores and, in the field, are probably dispersed with the fungus. Five bacterial isolates that showed a high level of inhibition were identified as members of the genus Bacillus and -comprised three species, B. subtilis, B. cereusand B. mycoides.
Japanese researchers made the finding after testing 259 MRSA strains for susceptibility to bacitracin and neomycin, two of the antibacterial ingredients commonly found in over-the-counter ointments like Neosporin and Polysporin. Resistance to bacitracin and neomycin was only found in USA300, a type of MRSA found in the United States.