Sydney Hilton bombing
On 13 February 1978, a bomb exploded outside the Hilton Hotel in Sydney, which was hosting the first Commonwealth Heads of Government Regional Meeting. Two garbage collectors and a police officer were killed and eleven others were injured. The perpertators are unknown but there is evidence that the bomb may have been placed by ASIO and Police Special Branch. (If so, it was not meant to explode, but rather be found by the bomb squad that happened to be waiting nearby.)
As a result of the bombing, ASIO's powers and budget were greatly expanded. It was also a motivation for the formation of the Australian Federal Police.