It looks like you're using an Ad Blocker.
Please white-list or disable AboveTopSecret.com in your ad-blocking tool.
Some features of ATS will be disabled while you continue to use an ad-blocker.
Originally posted by luxordelphi
"Aluminum sulfate also lowers soil pH, but we do not recommend its use because of potential harmful side effects (aluminum toxicity) to plant roots, which can significantly reduce plant growth."
"In the 1980's, the cost of chaff was further reduced by replacing solid aluminum with hair-like silica glass fibers with a thin aluminum coating. Chaff was once produced using lead, and the Air Force still has some chaff containing lead in its inventory."
"The Air Force, the Navy, and the Marine Corps are the leading users of chaff. Air Force records indicate they used nearly 2 million 6- to 7- ounce bundles worldwide in fiscal year 1996 and about 1.8 million bundles in fiscal year 1997. Navy and Marine Corps aircraft together expended more than 340,000 and 354,000 similarly sized bundles in fiscal years 1996 and 1997, respectively. They also reported using 158 rolls in fiscal year 1996 and 593 rolls in fiscal year 1997. The services use chaff on training ranges around the world. The Air Force uses about 39 ranges in the United States and off its coast; the Navy and the Marine Corps use 14 ranges."
.(7) chaff can affect safety by interfering with air traffic control radar; (8) chaff can also affect weather radar observations and the operation of friendly radar systems, especially when vehicles stir up chaff that has settled on the ground; (9) the services have a number of ongoing initiatives to address concerns about the unintended and potential effects of chaff; (10) for example, DOD has entered into or is negotiationg agreements with other federal agencies to address issues related to commercial air safety, weather forecasting, and environmental impacts on public lands;"
"CHAFF IS COMPOSED OF ALUMINUM-COATED SILICA GLASS FIBERS THAT CAN BE SPREAD BY AIRCRAFT IN FLIGHT, SHIPS AT SEA, AND VEHICLES ON THE GROUND..." [Caps added]
"YOU EXPRESSED CONCERN ABOUT DOD'S CONTINUED USE OF CHAFF FOR DECADES WITHOUT SUFFICIENT KNOWLEDGE OF ITS LONG-TERM EFFECTS ON THE ENVIRONMENT." [Caps added]
"CHAFF MAY BE DISPERSED...IN A CONTINUOUS STREAM OF OVER 30 POUNDS PER MINUTE." [Caps added]
"Concern about the potential effects of chaff continues to be an issue and has been expressed mainly by citizens and various public interest groups. In addition, some DOD research on the effects of chaff has expressed concerns and recommended further research. Most of the public concerns center around its effects on human health and the environment including the potential for chaff particles to be inhaled or ingested and chaff's effects on land, water, plants, and animals."
Most comments from the military will suggest that Chaff is a relic left over from the Vietnam War.
"Position Statement. AOC, the Electronic Warfare & Information Operations Association, advocates and urges that the federal government rapidly research, develop, purchase and install a surface-to-air missile detection and deterrent system for the American commercial airline fleet. This action would provide a viable means of protecting the public and the airline industry from this very real terrorist threat. (Adopted February 2003)"
"One immediate conclusion is that existing or near-term military technologies are candidates to protect the civilian airline fleet and its' passengers."
"The countermeasures that provide the ability to deceive and deflect missile threats include jammers, IR chaff, flares and decoy heat sources."
"Newer technological offerings in this category, intended to overcome the above mentioned shortcomings, include thin foil metal discs that oxide and leave residue clouds that can distract and confuse..."
In 2003, Senator Barbara Boxer (CA-D) and Congressman Steve Israel (NY-D) introduced legislation in both the House and Senate (H.R. 580/s.311 The Commercial Airline Missile Defense Act) that directed the Department of Homeland Security (DHS) to sponsor a research and development program that would result in a missile defense system that could be installed on commercial airliners; the bill also authorized funding for the program."
"As a result, the DHS initiated the 'counter-MANDPADS' or 'C-MANPADS' program in January, 2004, which tasked several defense contractors to adapt existing military countermeasures systems to commercial usage."
"...flight testing began in August, 2005 on a FedEx Express McDonnell Douglas MD-11. Flight tests were then conducted on a Boeing 747 which FedEx leased from Air Atlanta Icelandic."
"A civilian version of the system is being developed under the U.S. Department of Homeland Security's Project CHLOE."
"FedEx Express became the first air carrier to deploy the Guardian on a commercial flight in September 2006..."
(underlining is mine)
Originally posted by luxordelphi
The accidental contractor and H.R.580/S.311:
From fas.org/asmp/campaigns 'AOC, the Electronic Warfare & Information Operations Association' 'Missile Defense Systems for the American Commercial Airline Fleet'
- from Aerospace America, 2003
Although passenger aircraft may not quite be the sitting ducks at first imagined, the less good news is that merely converting military antimissile systems to civil use does not provide a simple technical answer. There are several potential countermeasure technologies available—small decoy flares, infrared jammers, high-powered lasers, chaff, and towed decoy targets—but not all are suitable for civil aircraft applications. Most military countermeasures rely on dispensing at high speed various forms of chaff/IR decoy cartridges, combined with violent maneuvering. But dispensing chaff and burning flares directly over built-up areas near an airport while taking the aircraft to the limits of its performance envelope—with only 10 seconds’ warning—are not really feasible solutions.
Originally posted by TheRealMrX
Hundreds of independent lab test results from around the world too numerous to mention here have formed a consensus.