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Mary (Aramaic, Hebrew: מרים, Maryām, Miriam; Arabic:مريم, Maryam), commonly referred to as "Saint Mary", "Mother Mary", the "Virgin Mary", the "Blessed Virgin Mary", or "Mary, Mother of God", was a Jewish woman of Nazareth in Galilee. She is identified in the New Testament[Mt 1:16,18-25] [Lk 1:26-56] [2:1-7] and in the Quran as the mother of Jesus through divine intervention.
Mary resided in "her own house"[Lk.1:56] in Nazareth in Galilee, possibly with her parents, and during her betrothal – the first stage of a Jewish marriage – the angel Gabriel announced to her that she was to be the mother of the promised Messiah by conceiving him through the Holy Spirit. After a number of months, when Joseph was told of her conception in a dream by "an angel of the Lord", he was surprised; but the angel told him to be unafraid and take her as his wife, which Joseph did, thereby formally completing the wedding rites.[Mt 1:18-25]
According to the Gospel of Luke, a decree of the Roman emperor Augustus required that Joseph return to his hometown of Bethlehem to be taxed. While he was there with Mary, she gave birth to Jesus; but because there was no place for them in the inn, she used a manger as a cradle. After eight days, he was circumcised according to Jewish law, and named "JESUS" [Luke 2:21] in accordance with the instructions that the angel had given to Mary in Luke 1:31, and Joseph was likewise told to call him Jesus in Matthew 1:21.
The betrothal of Joseph and Mary and the birth of Jesus in Bethlehem appear in both Matthew and Luke. Luke includes several events prior to the birth of Jesus that do not appear in Matthew, e.g. the trip from Nazareth to Bethlehem, while Matthew alone discusses the Flight to Egypt after the birth. The Nativity accounts in the New Testament are generally viewed as ending with Finding Jesus in the Temple several years later, after the family has returned to Galilee.
Mary, the mother of Jesus, is considered one of the most righteous women in the Islamic tradition. She is mentioned more in the Qur'an than in the entire New Testament and is also the only woman mentioned by name in the Qur'an.According to the Qur'an, Jesus was born miraculously by the will of God without a father. His mother is regarded as a chaste and virtuous woman and is said to have been a virgin. The Qur'an states clearly that Jesus was the result of a virgin birth, but that neither Mary nor her son were divine. In the Qur'an, no other woman is given more attention than Mary and the Qur'an states that Mary was chosen above all women:
"And when the angels said: O Mary! Lo! God hath chosen thee and made thee pure, and hath preferred thee above (all) the women of creation."
The virgin birth of Jesus is supremely important in Islam, as one of the most important miracles of Allah. The first explicit mention of an annunciation foreshadowing the birth of Jesus is in XIX: 20, where Mary asks Gabriel how she will be able to conceive, when no man has touched her. Gabriel's reply assures Mary that for Allah all things are easy and that Jesus's virgin birth will be a sign for mankind. The birth is later referred in LXVI: 12, where the Qur'an states that Mary remained "pure", while Allah allowed a life to shape itself in Mary's womb. A third mention of the annunciation is in III: 37-38, where Mary is also given the glad tidings that she has been chosen above all the women of creation. Commentators on the Qur'an remark on the last verse that Mary was as close to a perfect woman as there could be, and she was devoid of almost all failings. According to exegesis and literature, Gabriel appeared to Mary, who was still young in age, in the form of a well-made man with a "shining face" and announced to her the birth of Jesus. After her immediate astonishment, she was reassured by the angel's answer that Allah has the power to do anything.
The Qur'an narrates the virgin birth of Jesus numerous times. In XIX: 17-21, the annunciation is given, followed by the virgin birth, which exegesis relates took place soon after the annunciation. The Qur'an's narrative of the virgin birth is somewhat different from that in the New Testament. The Qur'an states that Mary was in the midst of the desert, when the pains of childbirth came upon her, as she was near a palm tree. Mary cried in pain and held onto the palm, at which point a voice came from "beneath her", understood by some to refer to Jesus, who was yet in her womb, which said "Be not grieved; Allah has provided a rivulet under thee; and shake the trunk of the palm and it shall let ripe dates fall upon thee, ready gathered. And eat and drink and calm thy mind".
The Qur'an goes onto describe that Mary vowed not to speak to any man on that day, as Allah was to make Jesus, whom Muslims believe spoke in the cradle, perform his first miracle. The Qur'an goes onto narrate that Mary then brought Jesus to the temple, where immediately she began to be taunted by all the men, excluding Zechariah, who believed in the virgin birth. The Israelites accused Mary of having touched another man whilst unmarried. It was then that the infant Jesus began to speak in the cradle, and spoke of his prophecy for the first time.
"Is not this the carpenter's son? is not his mother called Mary? and his brethren, James, and Joses, and Simon, and Judas?"
"Among which was Mary Magdalene, and Mary the mother of James and Joses, and the mother of Zebedee's children."
The Church Father Jerome, who died in Bethlehem in 420, reports in addition that the holy cave was at one point consecrated by the heathen to the worship of Adonis, and a pleasant sacred grove planted before it, to wipe out the memory of Jesus. Modern mythologists, however, reverse the supposition, insisting that the cult of Adonis-Tammuz originated the shrine and that it was the Christians who took it over, substituting the worship of their own God