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Originally posted by quedup
I personally am very interested in this area of archaeology as I'm sure many other members are too - so enjoy!
Originally posted by quedup
The building blocks used to build these Pyramids are made from a very high quality 'CONCRETE!'
.. “The starting stone material (silicate or silico-aluminate) is dissolved by the organic extracts, and the viscous slurry is then poured into a mould where it hardens. This technique, when mastered, allows a sort of cement to be made by dissolving rocks; statues which could have been made by the technique of the pre-incan HUANKA, by dissolution followed by geopolymeric agglomeration, are found to contain Ca-oxalate in the stone.”
The trio then proposed the hypothesis that the large stones found in the Mayan Fortresses and monuments were in reality, artificial and had in fact been agglomerated with a binder after certain rocks had been slowly disaggregated, an idea that fits very well with what the walls look like and also happens to be in total agreement with local legends and traditions such as those that were told to Fawcett.
The group then even went on to present to the meeting some actual samples of stone that had dissolved and re-aggregated themselves to prove it!
“We present here the first results on plant extracts on the dissolution or dis-aggregation of calcium carbonate containing rocks (Bio-tooling action). The feasibility of chemically working calcium carbonate with various carboxylic acids found in plants (acetic, oxalic and citric acid) has been studied. Maximum bio-tooling action is obtained with a solution containing:
Vinegar (1 M) (acetic acid)
Oxalic acid (0.9 M)
Citric acid (0.78 M)...
...The work by Dr. Davidovits is nothing short of brilliant and also very refreshing. It’s also interesting to note how quickly the problem was solved once the right approach to dealing with it had been adapted.
There is now very little doubt about how the Ancients actually built these incredible structures and indeed, softened or perhaps melting the stone has always really been the only possible explanation. The ancient Mayans were indeed quite capable of producing very large quantities of the acids that were used by Dr Davidovits in his experiments from many plants that were quite common to the region in the distant past. Plants such as: Fruits, Potatoes, Maize, Rhubarb, Rumex, Agave Americana, Opuntia, Ficus Indica and Garlic to name a few.
It is highly feasible that the stones were quarried, then broken or crushed to manageable sizes for transportation to the locations and re-aggregated on site while being cast back into the megalithic slabs we now see, after all, since we have seen that they certainly had and knew about the means to do it, it somehow seems absurd to think they would not have made use of the knowledge.
This is the story that graham hancock touched on, in more detail...richardgrigonis.com...
...Of course, the thing that got me most interested in him was, well, he was going up a valley, the Parahyva Valley in southern Peru, on the Amazonian side. He came to a granite cliff in a gorge. This cliff was absolutely upright, like a wall, and then there were these perfect little round holes all over it. As he came down the trail he saw little birds that went in and out of these holes. So he said to the people, “What’s that?” and they said, “Well, they nest in those holes.” He said, “How very convenient that there should be all these little holes all ready for the little birds to nest in!” The Amerindians then said to him, “Oh no. They make the holes.”
Fawcett answered with, “But that’s granite! How can a little tiny bird, about the size of a warbler, make a hole in solid granite?” They said, “Well, sit down sir, and watch!” And sure enough, the birds began coming with little pieces of a red leaf in their bill. We have now found out what the plant is, what the leaf is, and it’s quite well known. It’s a very common plant. As a matter of fact, we use it for ornamental purposes. You can buy it in the stores, in a florist’s in New York. The Latin name escapes me, but its got ordinary sort of rather spongy-looking red leaves–it’s red and purple instead of being green. It has a substance in it that is a very strong alkali and not an acid.
The birds would go and take pieces of these leaves and then they would hang on the cliff with their little claws, like a bat, and they’d rub this leaf onto the rock. Then they would fly away and get another one. They would work on this all day. Then in the evening when the sun went down; with their little soft bills they’d peck, peck, peck, and all the rock would be dissolved by the juice out of this plant in combination with their saliva. As they picked at it, it would all turn to something like sand and crumble away. Working three or four days, they could make a perfect spherical hole big enough to get into and lay their eggs.
Well, Colonel Fawcett got very interested in this, and he said, “There must be something in this juice which softens stone.” And the Amerindians said, “Oh, of course, sir, how do you think we made all our great big carvings? You don’t think that we carved all those huge stone monuments? Oh no, we softened them with this juice until it was like plastic, plasticine, then we molded our gods and figures, and then we poured cold water on it and set it again, and it turned back to stone.”
Fawcett went on with this, and he actually got a pot of this stuff out of an old grave, and it was a long story, but it fell over and broke, and it dissolved the stone under it. It was just like putty, and you could make anything you wanted out of it. Now we’re working back historically and we found that the ancient Hebrews had it in the Near East, and the North American Indians had it, this same process of softening stone rather than chipping it. They could dissolve limestone with it and set it again, making all those fantastic “carvings,” you know? We found out that the process is quite well known, it’s called chelation. It’s well known to all botanists, and it is nothing else but the simple natural process by which the roots of plants dissolve rock. Look out of this window here, I mean we have a picture window here, and all of these trees growing around the house. The way these trees can put their tap roots right down through the soil, into the subsoil, right through that, and maybe into solid rock, is called chelation. The little tiny ends of the soft roots, the very tips, dissolve the stone and soften it. Then they move in, drag all the moisture out and pump it up to make the leaves and everything else. It’s an enormous industry now in this country...
wikipedia article on chelation - en.wikipedia.org...[/QUOTE]
"Making Cements With Plant Extracts"
very interesting website with lots of pictures/info...
...Davidovits has also argued that the disaggregation of stone materials with organic acids from plant extracts was a universal technique in antiquity. Pliny mentions the use of vinegar (acetic acid) in the disaggregation of limestone rocks, and Hannibal (219 BC) used the technique to bore holes in and burst open rocks obstructing his path through the Alps in his attempt to conquer Rome. Davidovits and his coworkers have demonstrated that a solution containing acetic, oxalic, and citric acid (obtained from plants) can disaggregate rocks containing calcium carbonate (e.g. limestone and calcite). He draws attention to the extraordinary skill in fabricating stone objects displayed by the pre-Inca Huanka (or Wanka) civilization. Some contemporary shamans belonging to the Huanka tradition do not use tools to make their small stone objects, but use plant extracts to dissolve the stone material (which contains calcite) and then pour the slurry into a mould where it hardens. He believes the same technique was used to make the earlier statues...
...He also draws attention to signs that air bubbles were trapped in blocks during the manufacturing process, and to a block with a cavity in which a smaller stone is located.
worth a listen
"Joseph Davidovits | The Construction of the Pyramids & Reconstituted Limestone"
April 17, 2011
Joseph Davidovits is a French materials scientist who has posited that the blocks of the Great Pyramid are not carved stone but mostly a form of limestone concrete. He holds the Chevalier de l'Ordre National du Mérite (one of France's highest honors), is the author and co-author of more than 130 scientific papers and conferences reports, is the discoverer and inventor of the geopolymer chemistry and its technical applications and holds more than fifty patents...
...In this program, Joseph will discuss how the pyramids of Egypt were built. He'll share his research and theories about reconstituted limestone and more.
Topics Discussed: geopolymers, casting stones, alchemy, stone paste, chemistry, minerals, concrete, wet sand, casting, quarries, disaggregated limestone, salt, natrium, sodium carbonate, caustic soda, casing stone, shells, silica, granite, pyramids under water, dating, humidity inside the pyramids, Zahi Hawass, current conditions in Egypt, salt in the pyramids, 60 million year old bedrock fossils, Gantenbrink's Door, Imhotep, Saqqara, bent pyramid, Dahshur, red pyramid, calcium, Cheops, bread making, palm trees, desertification and Amenhotep, son of Hapu.edit on 4-8-2011 by 1825114 because: (no reason given)