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Originally posted by mr10k
reply to post by crimsonred
Still the same thing I said with ISPs and DNS. The internet is the same all over the world just in different languages
Originally posted by wasco2
Routers, son. It's all about the routers.
Originally posted by trekwebmaster
Well, we connect to the "internet," which is sometimes referred to as "the cloud." You login to your DSL or Cable ISP, which gives you an IP address on their Class C (usually) network. You are then allowed to access the internet due to privileges and permissions assigned to your connection (network,) then their connection to the "cloud" allows you and other users to navigate the World Wide Web (a collection of web pages,) located on servers (computers designated to serve web-pages.) and forms the what we call the "internet."
There are terms like "domains" which are names which point to IP addresses via Domain Name Service or Server; and these special servers handle translation of IP addresses to domain names and back again. Inside this jumble of domains, there are TOP level domains which are .com, .net, .org, and so on, then SECOND level domains as google.com, google.net, google.org and so on. Each TOP level domain DNS servers handle all traffic for their respective domains; and .com's handle DNS for all .com domains and .net DNS servers handle all traffic for all the .net domains and so on. Every country has their own top-level domain say .us for united states and .uk for the united kingdom, and .ru for russia and so on. Anyone can buy domains on the .com top level domain but some countries limit purchase for their own country specific domains for residents living in their country, which helps keep track of whose where and limit setting up a domain outside a country in another country to use for internet sales or avoiding paying fees or taxes. You can see where this might head.
All of the DNS servers share or propagate their records, often in a matter of minutes, but usually within 24 to 48 hours. Some are real-time and are instantly available. This is why there is a period of time before your web site or domain is "live." and available to be viewed on the internet. There is a DNS server called an SOA which is Start Of Authority and is the main DNS server and transfers or shares their DNS records with other "subordinate" DNS servers in a domain. The more the better in this case of DNS. Usually a typical domain has 2 or more DNS servers to handle Domain Name to IP address translation of requests, but if one crashes or goes down, you can see why having 2 or more is a good idea. Computers don't care about domain names, they deal with numbers (IP addresses) but people like names, so that's why we use those DNS servers. It's like a person listed in a phone book, with their number or address, in order for people to be able to associate a domain name to a computer's IP address.
Usually your ISP hands-down all the configuration for your connection by DHCP, which is Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol, and this is why your IP address changes when its lease runs out, usually 24 hours or longer, and keeps the IP address you use to surf the internet from being tied-up when you turn your computer off so others can use it. It conserves those IP addresses which are limited in number depending on whether your ISP is a Class A B C or D network. An IP address has 4 octets, which are 4 sets of three numbers; as 126.96.36.199 (made-up IP Address,) each set of 3 numbers is an octet, the first octet is Class A, millions of IP addresses, the second octet is Class B (hundreds of thousands of IP addresses, and class C in the third octet, which is what most ISP's are. Each octet goes from 0 to 255 = 256. Now you can see where the 255 and 256 come in. It's totally binary, but IP v6 uses hexadecimal which is 0 to 9 numerical and A-F (alpha) which is 16 (hexadecimal.) Binary is 8 bits and hexademimal is 16.
There is way more to this but this should make a few light bulbs go off in some heads. Feel free to correct or revise this as needed. I wrote it very fast and is meant to be a rough overview of how the internet works, not a scientific paper.
Oh, I forgot to mention the protocols:
HTTP, HTTPS, and FTP: these are communication protocols which tell the browser and computer how to connect to a server. HTTP is the most common and is simply hyper text transfer protocol, followed by the domain name, which through DNS is translated to an IP address. HTTPS is most important, because it is SECURE, just add the word SECURE to the end of the HTTP and you got it. What makes this special is that all traffic flowing from one computer to another computer is encrypted and secure, (indicated by a lock icon on your browser.) This is how most online sales and banking is done. If it's not HTTPS, any password or email you send and receive is sent over the internet in CLEAR TEXT, and can be read by ANYONE. Yes, that's right, if you don't use HTTPS, any person can potentially trap and read your traffic. FTP is file transfer protocol, which is how files are sent over the internet. Like uploading a webpage to a server, FTP is the most common but there are other protocols you can use, but FTP has and is the most easily used, but it's not secure unless you use a special type of FTP secured protocol.
Conceivably, anyone that has the specialized programs which can read clear text could pick-out usernames and passwords, say for any user on ATS, that logs on, but most do not know how and where to use this applications, and for the sake of knowledge, I won't be mentioning this, but any network administrator will and do know exactly what I am referring to. Most network admins are trained to hack their own networks to find and plug security holes, so they know how to be a cop and robber at the same time, so be smart, and don't download some crazy application thinking you're going to be like Anonymous, who knows, you might just break a bunch of laws and find yourself being fined thousands of dollars and in jail if you go out on a limb and do something stupid.
Enjoy!edit on 27-7-2011 by trekwebmaster because: (no reason given)