With this amount of information I find it hard to believe that a Jet aircraft could bring down two towers, by no means do I claim to be a
professional but looking at the photographs and videos I think even a laymen like me can see that those jets did not cause all that damage and it is
that the buildings where blown up with some type of explosives.
There is just to much circumstantial evidence for me to believe other wise and that inculed the fact that 911 was allowed to happen
EXPLOSIVES POWERED THE 9-11 WORLD TRADE CENTER DUST CLOUDS
Vast amounts of energy were released during the collapse of each of the Twin Towers in Lower Manhattan on September 11th, 2001. The accepted source of
this energy was the gravitational potential energy of the towers, which was far greater than the energy released by the fires that preceded the
The magnitude of that source cannot be determined with much precision thanks to the secrecy surrounding details of the towers' construction. However,
FEMA's Building Performance Assessment Report gives an estimate Ref(1):
"Construction of WTC 1 resulted in the storage of more than 4 x 1011 joules of potential energy over the 1,368-foot height of the structure. "That
is equal to about 111,000 KWH (kilowatt hours) per tower.
Of the many identifiable energy sinks in the collapses, one of the only ones that has been subjected to quantitative analysis is the thorough
pulverization of the concrete in the towers.
It is well documented that nearly all of the non-metallic constituents of the towers were pulverized into fine powder. The largest of these
constituents by weight was the concrete that constituted the floor slabs of the towers. Jerry Russell estimated that the amount of energy required to
crush concrete to 60 micron powder is about 1.5 KWH/ton. Ref.(2)
That paper incorrectly assumes there were 600,000 tons of concrete in each tower, but Russell later provided a more accurate estimate of 90,000 tons
of concrete per tower, based on FEMA's description of the towers' construction. That estimate implies the energy sink of concrete pulverization was
on the order of 135,000 KWH per tower, which is already larger than the energy source of gravitational energy.
However, the size of this sink is critically dependent on the fineness of the concrete powder, and on mechanical characteristics of the lightweight
concrete thought to have been used in the towers. Available statistics about particle sizes of the dust, such as the study by Paul J. Lioy, et al
characterize particle sizes of aggregate dust samples, not of its constituents, such as concrete, fiberglass, hydrocarbon soot, etc. Based on diverse
evidence, 60 microns would appear to be a high estimate for average concrete particle size, suggesting 135,000 KWH is a conservative estimate for the
magnitude of the sink.
A second energy sink, that has apparently been overlooked, was many times the magnitude of the gravitational energy: the energy needed to expand the
dust clouds to several times the volume of each tower within 30 seconds of the onset of their collapses. Note that the contents of the dust clouds had
to come from building constituents -- gases and materials inside of or intrinsic to the building -- modulo any mixing with outside air.
Given that the Twin Towers' dust clouds behaved like pyroclastic flows, with distinct boundaries and rapidly expanding frontiers (averaging perhaps
35 feet/second on the ground for the first 30 seconds), it is doubtful that mixing with ambient air accounted for a significant fraction of their
volume. Therefore the dust clouds' expansion must have been primarily due to an expansion of building constituents. Possible sources of expansion
· thermodynamic expansion of gases
· vaporization of liquids and solids
· chemical reactions resulting in a net increase in gaseous phase molecules That is explosives.
The evidence does not support the idea that chemical reactions in the dust cloud liberated vast quantities of gases.
Actually, the evidence does support the use of explosives to collapse the towers
That leaves increases in gas temperatures and vaporization of solids and liquids, primarily water, to drive the expansion.
How much heat energy was involved in expanding the dust clouds? To calculate the energy we need to answer three questions:
1. What was the volume of the dust clouds from a collapse at some time soon after it started (before the clouds began to diffuse)?
2. How did the mixing of the dust cloud with ambient air contribute to its size, and how can this be factored out to obtain the volume occupied by
gases and suspended materials originally inside the building?
3. What is the ratio of that volume to the volume of the intact building?
4. How much heat energy was required to produce that ratio of expansion?
[edit on 23-8-2004 by Sauron]