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The average maximum in late winter
computed from Fig. 6b is nearly 4 times greater than
the summertime minimum. Both theoretical (Sausen et
al. 1998) and empirical (Mannstein et al. 2000) estimates
of contrail coverage and satellite-derived contrail
frequencies (DeGrand et al. 2000) yield a minimum during
July, consistent with the broad summertime minimum
seen here. Sausen et al. (1998) report a 400%
increase in coverage from the July minimum to their
April maximum, while DeGrand et al. (2000) ﬁnd a 40%
increase in frequency between July and their October
maximum. Sausen et al. (1998) and DeGrand et al.
(2000) ﬁnd larger values for both coverage and frequency,
respectively, during April than during January
over the United States. The Sausen et al. (1998) mean
coverage during January and October are the same,
while Fig. 6b suggests that the contrail occurrence
steadily increases between October and February. The
preliminary results of Mannstein et al. (2000) and Palikond
a et al. (2002) from 1993 and 2001 satellite data,
respectively, are qualitatively consistent with the surface
observations. For example, during April, October, and
December 1993, respective contrail coverage from
Mannstein et al. (2000) was 0.020, 0.019, and 0.021,
while the contrail frequencies for the 13 sites having
measurements during all three months during 1993–94
were 0.188, 0.163, and 0.197.
I'm wondering if that dip around the New Year is actually because of the bad weather, or simply that people have better things to do around Christmas and the New Year.
can't help but think about the NASA employee safety measures they sent out recently... and honestly it worries me a bit. i have a pile of saving and i'm honestly contemplating spending it all on survival gear that i've always had my eyes on.