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Scientists in the US have investigated the ways in which medical doctors and public health professionals deal with hypothetical dilemmas that require them to decide whether to sacrifice a few for the sake of saving many. Their research extends the kind of dilemma often seen in ethics and philosophy courses, such as the well-known footbridge dilemma, originally suggested by philosophers Philippa Foot and Judith Jarvis Thomson, in which a trolley is about to hurtle into and kill five workers on a railway track. You are on a footbridge spanning the track and can save the workers by pushing a large man next to you off the bridge and into the path of the trolley. The question is, is it morally permissible to kill the one to save the five?