This is going to the the 1st in (I hope) to be a long line of articles (basically just me posting research etc but from my padded cell: D
I love Greek mythology, the gods, the artifacts and the stories. This subject has a vast expansion of topics that could be discussed, so I was going
to do a rundown of just some of the mythology for ATSers to mull over and hopefully discuss. Iv tried my best to condense as much as I can, sources
and resources used are linked throughout the article. Everyone is of course more than welcome to add any they think may be of interest.
Although in Greek mythology there are many gods, many will recognize what was known as the 12 Olympians, they are said to have ruled after the
overthrow of the Titans. The Titans were what was called the elder gods
and ruled the earth before the Olympians overthrew them. The ruler of
the Titans was Cronus
who was de-throned by his son Zeus. Most of the Titans fought with Cronus against
Zeus and were punished by being banished to Tartarus
. During their rule the Titans were associated
with the various planets
. All the Olympians are related in some way. They are named after
their dwelling place which is situated at Mount Olympus
Historians though-out history have been unsure of the exact origins about the stories of the gods but the 1st recorded mention of them was by
Honer – the greek poet
Who resided in Greece around 800bc. The Ancient Greek’s are believed to have
contributed a lot to today’s civilization, more so than any other. They were people who were extremely knowledgeable, intelligent, and ambitious as
well as a great deal of physical strength. They made many contributions in the fields of philosophy, astrology, physics, biology and mathematics as
well as contributing to the dramatic arts and sports (As you may already know-they started the
back in 776 BC). Historians say that the ancient Greeks were
very religious people, and built many beautiful temples and buildings to worship their god in., their belief was that there were many gods who
contribute to life, they also believed that the gods showed themselves in human form but they had superhuman powers and amazing strength.
There are many stories surrounding the gods, the most well known would be the Olympians and titans, and the Olympians overthrowing the titans is a
fascinating read. Cronus (ruler of the titans) and his wife Rhea
had a lot of children,
but Cronus, who under the belief of being overthrown by one of them he would eat the children after they were born. Rhea who did not like the
situation ended up hiding one of her sons soon after birth on the island of Crete, she managed to trick Cronus into swallowing a rock, this child was
named Zeus, who went onto overthrow his father and the rest of the titans, rescuing his brothers and sisters and becoming the ruler of the
Philandering King of the Gods
Zeus, king of the gods, was actually the youngest of his generation. Yep, that's right - Hades, Poseidon, Demeter and Hera all had to listen to their
baby brother. And you wonder why they all squabbled so much...
When he and his siblings overthrew their father, Zeus, Poseidon, and Hades drew lots for which part of the world they would rule. Zeus lucked out and
drew the sky, becoming a storm god. He married his sister, Hera (don't be too hard on the guy - there weren't a whole lot of choices), then set
about populating Mount Olympus with his children.
Unfortunately, most of those kids weren't Hera's, who was none too happy about the ever-increasing number of step-kids. Zeus had a wandering eye for
pretty women, and his numerous affairs - and his attempts to keep his wife in the dark - kept the ancient Greeks entertained for centuries.
God of: Storms, the sky, law, order, and justice.
Children: Way too many to list, but most of the younger Olympians, and several notable heroes, including Hercules.
Symbols: Lightning bolt, eagle
Hobbies: Seducing women, throwing lightning bolts
Roman Name: Jupiter
Vengeful Queen of the Gods
Hera was the queen of the gods and both the sister and wife of Zeus. She was more or less tricked into the marriage, but being the goddess OF
marriage, she didn't have much choice but to stick it out through all her husband's philandering. She was the mother of Hephaestus, Hebe and Ares,
and spent much of her free time trying to annihilate her husband's love interests and illegitimate children. The majority of her roles in Greek myths
involved her attempts to preserve her marriage over the best efforts of Zeus - setting the many-eyed Argus to watch over Io, tricking Semele into
asking to see Zeus's full godly glory, and so on.
She did have her good moments, though. She was crucial to helping Jason and the Argonauts in their quest for the Golden Fleece. When the Clashing
Rocks were set to squash their entire ship like a particularly pesky mosquito, she kept the cliffs apart long enough for them to escape. Later, she
sent Thetis and the Nereides to guide Jason and his crew through the perils of Charybdis, Scylla, and the Drifting Rocks.
So, certain 90's television shows aside, she wasn't all bad. She was just a very proud woman whose husband never quite learned to keep his toga
Goddess of: Marriage and childbirth
Children: Hephaestus, Hebe, Ares
Symbols: Peacock, diadem and veil
Hobbies: Hunting down and punishing her husband's mistresses and children
Roman Name: Juno
Moody God of the Seas
When the three brothers drew lots for which part of the world they would rule, Poseidon drew the sea. He took to his new kingdom well enough, and he
became well-known as a temperamental god whose moods could change as swiftly as the realm he ruled. He is also credited with creating the horse.
A lot of the myths around Poseidon, like most of the male Olympians, involve women. For example, his tryst with Medusa in Athena's temple is what led
to her becoming the snake-haired creature that could turn a person to stone with a well-placed glare. In another pivotal myth, he and Athena competed
for Athens by presenting the people with gifts. His gift of a bitter spring didn't exactly beat Athena's olive tree.
As god of the sea, he was very important to the Greeks, whose peninsula was, of course, surrounded by water on three sides. He provided a rather stern
and moody explanation for the temperamental seas and the occasional shaking of the earth. He was, in fact, known as the great Earth-Shaker.
God of: The sea, earthquakes, horses
Children: Aeolus, Triton, the Cyclops, Pegasus, Bellerophon, and Theseus, among others
Hobbies: Looking for romance and building fantastic palaces on the bottom of the sea
Roman Name: Neptune
Dark and Dour God of the Underworld
The third brother and the one who kinda got shafted in the domains department. Yep, Hades drew the short straw and got stuck with the Underworld, the
Greek realm of the dead. His were the spirits of the dearly departed, and his duties included making sure the bad folks went to Tartarus and the VIPs
ended up in the Elysian Fields.
The most well-known myth in which he played a major role told how he met his wife. As one of the most feared and unpopular of the gods, his dating
prospects were frightfully grim, so when he saw Persephone prancing about in a field of flowers, he decided to skip the awkward small talk and go
straight to kidnapping. Despite all his hard work, he only gets to see his wife part of the year, thanks to a compromise to make his
mother-in-law/sister Demeter happy.
Thanks to being god of the dead, people kind of feared Hades to the point where they avoided saying his name and even averted their eyes when making
sacrifices to him. No wonder he was so sulky all the time!
God of: The Underworld and the riches of the earth
Children: The Erinyes
Symbols: Sceptor, helmet of invisibility
Hobbies: Devising punishments and lounging in his ebony throne
Roman Name: Pluto
Goddess of Grain
Demeter, Zeus's older sister, was the goddess of the earth and grain. She taught humanity how to settle down and plant crops so they could stop
wandering the earth.
Her most important myth comes from when Hades kidnapped her daughter, Persephone. For months, Demeter wandered around, looking for her lost daughter.
Understandably distressed, she refused to let any crops grow until finally, Zeus demanded that Hades let Persephone go. However, Persephone had eaten
part of a pomegranite (poor girl wasn't too bright), and Hades declared that Persephone would have to return to the Underworld for a third of the
year. We call that third of the year "winter."
Other than that, Demeter tends to play bit parts here and there. Not much of a stagehog, our Demeter.
Goddess of: Grain, the harvest
Spouse: Far as I know, this dour lady never married.
Symbols: Sheaths of grains and a torch
Hobbies: Moping, watching the grain grow
Roman Name: Ceres
Goddess of Love and Beauty
Ah, the lovely lady Aphrodite... As the goddess of love, beauty, pleasure, and *ahem* procreation, she was pretty darn popular among the mortals. She
was also extremely popular among the male Olympians, which is why Hera decided she needed to be married off the second she stepped ashore. As soon as
word went out that this beautiful new love goddess was in the market for a husband, all the younger gods signed up for consideration. Unfortunately,
it wasn't up to Aphrodite... and Hera decided the best match for her was the down-to-earth smith god, Hephaestus.
Now, the Olympian lads weren't known for respecting the sacrement of marriage, and darned if Aphrodite was going to. She hooked up with most of the
gods and a good number of mortals, but her favorite was the god of war, Ares. Since Aphrodite and Ares weren't even considerate enough to take their
affair out of the house, Hephaestus trapped them in a golden net and called all of Olympus to come and see. The goddesses politely declined, but it
was definitely the show of the century for all the gods!
While there's a little disagreement about Aphrodite's parents, she was often accompanied by Eros, and known for her various clashes with the other
goddesses. She was also noteable for her role in starting the Trojan War.
Goddess of: love, beauty, pleasure, and sex
Children: Hermaphroditus, Eros (in some cases), Deimos, Phobos, and lots of others.
Symbols: Dove, apple, sea shell, and, of course, the mirror.
Hobbies: Pampering herself and scoping out the gentlemen
Roman Name: Venus
Big-Talking God of War
Meet the loud-mouth of Mount Olympus! As the son of Zeus and Hera, he should have had a pretty prestigious place in mythology. Instead, everyone hoped
this violent god of war wasn't bright enough to find his way to the party. About the only person who did like him, besides his own offspring, was
Aphrodite... and they didn't exactly do a lot of talking.
Despite all his big talk, physical prowess, and position as god of war, Ares had the reputation as the consummate coward who set new speed records in
running back to Daddy as soon as he got nicked by a sword, spear, arrow, or stray piece of paper. Besides his renowned affair with Aphrodite, Ares is
best known for getting trapped in jar by a group of giants. The gods enjoyed his absence for months before someone finally convinced Hermes that the
poor god had to be let out for air... eventually.
God of: War
Spouse: Ahaha.. ha... yeah, moving on.
Children: Deimos (Terror), Phobos (Fear), Harmonia
Symbols: Helmet and spear
Hobbies: Talking big, annoying his siblings, killing Aphrodite's other loves
Roman Name: Mars
Goddess of Wisdom
Athena was the daughter of Zeus and his first wife, Metis, the wisest of the gods. Someone went and told Zeus that if Metis gave him a son, he'd be
more powerful than the king of the gods, so Zeus decided the best way to deal with the threat was to swallow the pregnant Metis whole.
Zeus obviously hadn't thought the whole thing through, because in due time, he ran into a little problem: a headache an entire truckload of Tylenol
couldn't touch. He called Hephaestus and demanded he do something about it. Apparently thinking that the king of the gods could use a little
shut-eye, the smith god whacked him over the head. Imagine their surprise when a fully-grown (and clothed) Athena sprang forth!
Besides the rather odd circumstances of her birth, Athena was known for combining her mother's brains and her father's brawn together as a wise
warrior goddess, specializing in defensive strategies. She took part in the war of the giants, and had a hand in the Trojan War. She also had a
tendency to get rather touchy, as the likes of Tiresias, Arachne, and even Aphrodite soon found out.
Goddess of: Wisdom, war, arts and crafts, heroic endeavors, industry and justice.
Spouse: None. She was a virgin goddess.
Children: She adopted Erechtheus.
Symbols: Owl, Aegis, spear, shield, and a lovely helmet.
Hobbies: Strategizing, weaving, entering contests.
Roman Name: Minerva
Craftsman of the Gods
On a mountain full of divinely beautiful deities, Hephaestus was the ugly duckling. Some sources say he was born crippled, but if he wasn't, the
bumpy ride down the side of the mountain when his mother Hera tossed him off for being ugly did the trick. Because of this, Hephaestus was known as
the lame god, and usually showed up in art on the back of a donkey or leaning on a walking stick. Fortunately for him, he was rescued after his
downfall by nymphs who took him to Lemnos to be raised by the kindly folk there.
He applied himself to blacksmithing and became quite the craftsman, creating objects of great beauty. However, he never forgot what Hera did to him,
and decided to send her a little present: a fantastic throne. Hera was delighted, of course... until she sat down and found herself strapped in. None
of the other gods could get her loose, and despite their best attempts, no one could get Hephaestus out of his workshop and back to Olympus.
Things were looking rather grim for Hera when Dionysus, back from his mad wanderings and not yet recognized as an Olympian, paid his step-brother a
visit. With a liberal application of wine, Dionysus got Hephaestus drunk, loaded him onto the back of a donkey, and took him up to Olympus, where he
convinced him to free the queen.
Afterward, Hera thanked Hephaestus with the worst present since Pandora's box: Aphrodite, as his wife. And we all know how well that went.
Other than that bit of drama, Hephaestus mostly stayed in his forge beneath Mount Etna in Sicily, crafting everything from Achilles' armor to Eros's
arrows with the aid of his handy Cyclops assistants.
God of: fire, blacksmiths, craftsmen
Spouse: Aphrodite, and later, Aglaea
Children: Erechtheus, Eucleia (goddess of good reputation and glory), Eupheme (goddess of being well-spoken), Euthenia (goddess of prosperity and
plenty), and a whole lot more.
Symbols: Hammer and tongs
Hobbies: Working... a lot.
Roman Name: Vulcan
Lovelorn Poet of the Gods
Apollo, son of Zeus and Leto and twin brother of Artemis, would have been a great guy during the Romantic period. He was the patron of music and
poetry, endorsed archery as a sport, and had more tragic love stories than Lord Byron, Shelly, and Keats put together.
When he wasn't plucking the lyre, conducting the Muse Choir, or chasing after ladies (and the occasional lad), Apollo spent his time reminding
humanity that he was, indeed, a god not to be messed with. In one of his best known acts, he slayed the dread Python, which was terrorizing the rural
folk at Delphos. This act won him his very own oracle and the love of the farming community, but unfortunately, the Python was the beloved child of
Gaia, and as a god who was supposed to stand for good and right, he had to make amends... which turned out to be entering the service of King Admetus.
The king decided to set him to the task of guarding his cattle for nine years, giving Apollo plenty of time to work on his poetry.
One thing Apollo simply couldn't abide was anyone dissing his mama... which Niobe was dumb enough to do. She claimed to be superior to Leto because
she had born a whole slew of kids while Leto could claim only two. Not the best idea. In a fit of rage, Apollo and his sister set about slaying all of
Niobe's brood with a hail of arrows. Remember, kids: don't go insulting the gods!
God of: Music, poetry, archery as a sport, healing, disease, and prophecy.
Spouse: None, but he did have plenty of loves!
Children: Aristaeus (demi-god of cattle and fruit trees), Asclepius (god of healing), Troilius (a prince of Troy)
Symbols: Laurel wreath, bow and arrows, lyre, raven.
Hobbies: Penning poetry, chasing nymphs, archery.
Roman Name: Apollo
Celibate Goddess of the Hunt
Artemis was the daughter of Zeus and Leto and the older twin sister of Apollo. At a pretty young age, she swore of men and took to the hills,
determined to remain a virgin for all eternity. Out in the woods, she spent her time hunting the lions, bears, stags, and what have you with her
contingent of celibate nymphs. And, of course, you have to have a healthy supply of beasties if you're going to hunt, so Artemis was also in charge
of taking care of big game.
Artemis was very determined to remain an undefiled virgin, and woe to any man who threatened that. Poor Actaeon, for example, happened to stumble upon
her favorite bathing pool and didn't stumble away fast enough. An irritated Artemis turned him into a stag and let his own hounds have at him.
Despite swearing off men, Artemis did become rather close to the giant hunter, Orion, who became her hunting companion and bodyguard. While in some
versions of the myth, Artemis herself killed him, other versions say that Gaia or Apollo slew him. Either way, Artemis scattered his spirit among the
stars to become the constellation Orion.
Goddess of: the hunt, wild animals, death and disease, healing, young girls, childbirth.
Symbols: Hunting bow and arrows
Hobbies: Hunting, animal rescue, fending off peeping toms.
Roman Name: Diana
Jack of All Trades
Arguable no god had more responsibilities and areas of influence than Hermes, son of Zeus and Maia. Hermes was the ultimate nightmare child, the kind
who would have had all his grade school teachers tearing out their hair. Not long after being born, little Hermes snuck off and stole the herd of
cattle his brother Apollo was supposed to be watching. He managed to get all the cows to walk backwards to make them harder to track. Apollo
eventually figured out the trick, but not before Hermes had slaughtered one of the bovines and constructed the lyre out of various cow parts and a
Apollo, of course, was a wee bit miffed, and hauled his little brother off the Zeus. Unfortunately for Apollo, Zeus thought this was all hilarious.
While Apollo argued his case, Hermes started playing the lyre, and Apollo offered to forget the whole thing if Hermes handed over the instrument.
Zeus, meanwhile, realized that Hermes had a bit too much energy and a little too much mischief to be left alone, so he dubbed him his personal
messenger and gave him the oh so envious job of guiding the souls of the dearly departed to the Underworld.
Because of his role as messenger, Hermes spent quite a bit of time with his old man, and as his trusted envoy, ended up with the task of trying to
protect his father's lovers and kids from Hera's detection. Most notably, he freed Io, who Zeus had turned into a cow, from Hera's servant Argus by
telling him so many boring tales and playing such soothing lullabies that the giant went to sleep.
Hermes dealt with mortals quite often and liked helping them out whenever possible, whether it was giving Odysseus a few hints or helping Orpheus find
his dead wife. Instances of his wrath are fairly few, so if you were going to run into an Olympian god, Hermes was probably the best you could hope
God of: Shepherds, fertility, travel, marketplaces, weights and measures, good luck, oratory, language, writing, athletes, thieves.
Children: Pan, Hermaphroditus, Abderus, and others.
Symbols: herald's staff, winged boots, winged hat.
Hobbies: Helping out, stealing things, dallying with nymphs.
Roman Name: Mercury
God of Wine, Theatre, and Madness
Dionysus is the youngest of the Olympians, and the one with the most mixed reactions. Women loved him because he encouraged them to have a little fun
and be free, while men though that was the worst thing ever, but greatly enjoyed his gifts of wine and theater.
His mother, Semele, was a mortal, which caused him no end of trouble. As such, she was at the top of Hera's hit list, and skeptical people loved to
deny that Dionysus could ever be a god. He usually managed to convince them otherwise... even if it killed them.
His youth was... rough, to say the least. Despite his aunt and uncle raising him as a girl and then spending a stint on Mount Nysa in the care of
Silenus as a goat, Hera always seemed to find him and wreak havoc. When she led to the death of his first love, Ampelus, Dionysus went mad himself,
and took to wandering the world until either a spring of Zeus or the goddess Rhea cured him. He eventually took his place on Olympus after convincing
Hephaestus into freeing Hera from the golden throne.
As an incredibly bi-polar god, he could be sweet as wine or vengeful as a hangover, as his cousin Penthus found out when he declared that Semele had
just shacked up with some local boy rather than Zeus. A group of pirates who kidnapped him also ran afoul of his bad side. He killed the captain and
turned the rest of the crew (save the one who recognized him as a god) into dolphins.
Dionysus did have a softer side. When Theseus deserted Ariadne on an island, Dionysus took her as his wife and treated her as a queen. And don't let
the Roman Bacchus fool you - Dionysus was more often seen as a beautiful, effeminate youth than the drunken butterball of Disney's Fantasia.
God of: Wine, vegitation, theater, pleasure, madness.
Children: Deianaira (Hercules' wife), lots of others.
Symbols: Thrysos, drinking cup, grape vine, and leopards.
Hobbies: Partying, hanging out with the ladies, watching the show.
Roman Name: Bacchus
The ancient Greeks are still a bit of a mystery to historians and archeologists, they have learned a vast amount from various Greek literature,
paintings, pottery amongst other things. The ancient Greeks through-out their arts and works attempted to explain the origins of the world and often
embodied detailed work about the lives and adventures of a wide variety of gods, goddesses, heroes, heroines, and mythological creatures.
Greek mythology is embodied explicitly in a large collection of narratives and implicitly in Greek representational arts, such as vase-paintings and
votive gifts. Greek myth attempts to explain the origins of the world and details the lives and adventures of a wide variety of gods, goddesses,
heroes, heroines, and mythological creatures. Theres a heck of a lot of stuff that could be covered still but I have tried to condense it all.
The Age Of The Heroes
The age of the hero’s is also referred to as the heroic age
. This was a time were it
is said that new gods had stopped being born, and hero’s could be arisen from the dead. The ancient Greeks say that many endured the wrath of the
gods, For Example: When the hero Bellerophon
tried to reach the
home of the gods upon the winged horse Pegasus
, the gods sent a gadfly to sting the
horse, which bucked and threw its rider. Bellerophon tumbled to the land and wandered blind and poor for the rest of his days. Bellerophon was not the
only one to feel the vengeance of the gods; Arachne
boasted that she could beat the goddess
Athena in a weaving contest, and won – in her wrath and jealousy Athena turned her into a spider (thus we get the word “arachnid”).
slept with a man in
and the sea god turned her and her two sisters
into hideous Gorgons, with fangs, scales and snakes for hair
When monsters such as the Gorgons and the Minotaur
(who was the offspring of a bull and the King
of Minos’ wife) were created, it was the duty of heroes to destroy them. Greek heroes were not full gods, but many were part-divine (Heracles was
the son of Zeus and a woman, as was Perseus). In either case, they were worshipped as holy, although they were rarely praised as gods.
A list of just few other Mythical Creatures of Ancient Greece
Ash Tree Nymphs
The Ancient Greek Hero’s
List of just a few of the heroes and their accomplished trials
Heracles and his Labors
Achilles and the Trojan War
Odysseus and the Odyssey
Jason and the Argonauts
Perseus and Medusa/Gorgon
Oedipus and Thebes
Theseus and the Minotaur
The Origins Myths
The origins of Greek mythology it seems cannot be fully placed, as their as various theories offered by many people. Historians of religion believe
that the mythological legends and things derive from narratives of the scriptures, but say that the actual facts have been disguised and altered over
time. They believe however that the heroes & gods were based on real human beings (the legends later being added.).
Thus the story of Aeolus is supposed to have arisen from the fact that Aeolus was the ruler of some islands in the Tyrrhenian Sea. The
Allegorical Theory supposes that all the ancient myths were allegorical and symbolical; while the Physical Theory subscribed to the idea that the
elements of air, fire, and water were originally the objects of religious adoration, thus the principal gods were personifications of these powers of
nature. Max Müller attempted to understand an Indo-European religious form by tracing it back to its Aryan, "original" manifestation. In 1891,
he claimed that "the most important discovery which has been made during the nineteenth century with respect to the ancient history of mankind ...
was this sample equation: Sanskrit Dyaus-pitar = Greek Zeus = Latin Jupiter = Old Norse Tyr". In other cases, close parallels in character and
function suggest a common heritage, yet lack of linguistic evidence makes it difficult to prove, as in the comparison between Uranus and the Sanskrit
Varuna or the Moirae and the Norns.
Archaeology and mythography, on the other hand, have revealed that the Greeks were inspired by some of the civilizations of Asia Minor and the Near
East. Adonis seems to be the Greek counterpart — more clearly in cult than in myth — of a Near Eastern "dying god". Cybele is rooted in
Anatolian culture while much of Aphrodite's iconography springs from Semitic goddesses. There are also possible parallels between the earliest divine
generations (Chaos and its children) and Tiamat in the Enuma Elish. According to Meyer Reinhold, "near Eastern theogonic concepts, involving
divine succession through violence and generational conflicts for power, found their way ... into Greek mythology". In addition to Indo-European
and Near Eastern origins, some scholars have speculated on the debts of Greek mythology to the pre-Hellenic societies: Crete, Mycenae, Pylos, Thebes
and Orchomenus. Historians of religion were fascinated by a number of apparently ancient configurations of myth connected with Crete (the god as
bull, Zeus and Europa, Pasiphaë who yields to the bull and gives birth to the Minotaur etc.) Professor Martin P. Nilsson concluded that all great
classical Greek myths were tied to Mycenaen centres and were anchored in prehistoric times. Nevertheless, according to Burkert, the iconography
of the Cretan Palace Period has provided almost no confirmation for these theories.
The gods created and either destroyed or retired four ages of men... the Golden Age
, the Bronze Age
& Heroic age
(already covered) and the Iron Age
. It is believed that during the last age of man (the iron age)
the gods abandoned man because of their greed
Ages Of Man
Here are some links in regards to their creation beliefs
Ancient Greek Creation Myth
Creation Of the world
The Creation of Man by
As you see there is a lot more information I didn’t include, I tried to condense as much as possible. I hope that you enjoyed reading and
Zeus will destroy this race of mortal men too: For the father will not agree with his children, nor the children with their father, nor guest
with his host, nor comrade with comrade, nor will brothers love each other as once they did. Men will dishonour their parents as they attain Old Age,
without repaying them the cost of their nurture. Might shall be right, so that one man may sack another man's city. There will be no merit for the
man who keeps his word, or for the just, or for the good; rather, men will praise the evil-doer and admire his audacity and violent dealings. Strength
will be right, and respect will vanish as an empty word. Peace being banished, the MUSES will depart; therefore they will lead a life in ugliness. The
wicked will hurt the worthy, speaking false words against them; therefore will Envy walk along with them. The gods will forsake mortal men, letting
bitter sorrows fall upon them; and being defenceless like children in the wilderness, they will not find any help against all evil they themselves