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"Imagine the Earth as if it were immersed in honey. As the planet rotates, the honey around it would swirl, and it's the same with space and time," said Francis Everitt, GP-B principal investigator at Stanford University. "GP-B confirmed two of the most profound predictions of Einstein's universe, having far-reaching implications across astrophysics research. Likewise, the decades of technological innovation behind the mission will have a lasting legacy on Earth and in space."
“Though we’ve developed these tools for black-hole collisions, they can be applied wherever space-time is warped,” says Dr. Geoffrey Lovelace, a member of the team from Cornell. “For instance, I expect that people will apply vortex and tendex lines to cosmology, to black holes ripping stars apart, and to the singularities that live inside black holes. They’ll become standard tools throughout general relativity.”
The researchers say the tendex and vortex lines provide a powerful new way to understand the nature of the universe. “Using these tools, we can now make much better sense of the tremendous amount of data that’s produced in our computer simulations,” says Dr. Mark Scheel, a senior researcher at Caltech and leader of the team’s simulation work.
The Local Bubble is a cavity in the interstellar medium (ISM) of the Orion Arm of the Milky Way. It is at least 300 light years across and has a neutral hydrogen density of about 0.05 atoms per cubic centimetre, or approximately one tenth of the average for the ISM in the Milky Way (0.5 atoms/cc), and half that for the "Local Fluff", or Local Interstellar Cloud (0.1 atoms/cc). The hot diffuse gas in the Local Bubble emits X-rays.
Viscosity is a measure of the resistance of a fluid which is being deformed by either shear stress or tensile stress. In everyday terms (and for fluids only), viscosity is "thickness" or "internal friction". Thus, water is "thin", having a lower viscosity, while honey is "thick", having a higher viscosity. Put simply, the less viscous the fluid is, the greater its ease of movement (fluidity).
In physics, fluid dynamics is a sub-discipline of fluid mechanics that deals with fluid flow—the natural science of fluids (liquids and gases) in motion. It has several subdisciplines itself, including aerodynamics (the study of air and other gases in motion) and hydrodynamics (the study of liquids in motion). Fluid dynamics has a wide range of applications, including calculating forces and moments on aircraft, determining the mass flow rate of petroleum through pipelines, predicting weather patterns, understanding nebulae in interstellar space and reportedly modeling fission weapon detonation. Some of its principles are even used in traffic engineering, where traffic is treated as a continuous fluid.
The Venturi effect is the reduction in fluid pressure that results when a fluid flows through a constricted section of pipe. The Venturi effect is named after Giovanni Battista Venturi (1746–1822), an Italian physicist.
Voyager 1 Measures Magnetic Mayhem
When Voyager 1 passed into the heliosheath in 2004, it became the first man-made object to explore the remote edge of the Sun’s magnetic influence. Launched by NASA on September 5, 1977, the probe was designed to study the outer Solar System and eventually interstellar space. One of its missions was to look for the heliopause – the boundary at which the solar wind transitions into the interstellar medium. What it found was mayhem…
The structures, appearing as proton boundary layers (PBLs), magnetic holes or humps, or sector boundaries, were identified by characteristic ffluctuations in either magnetic field strength or direction as the spacecraft crossed nearly 500 million km (310 million mi) of heliosheath in 2009. PBLs are defined by a rapid jump in magnetic field strength, with one observed event resulting in a doubling of the field strength in just half an hour.” said the team. “Passing through a sector boundary led to a sudden change in direction of the magnetic field. Magnetic holes saw the field strength drop to near zero before returning to the original background strength. Magnetic humps consisted of a sudden spike in strength and then a return to initial levels.”
We identified all of the current sheets for which we have relatively complete and accurate magnetic field (B) data from Voyager 1 (V1) from days of year (DOYs) 1 to 331, 2009, which were obtained deep in the heliosheath between 108.5 and 111.8 AU. Three types of current sheets were found: (1) 15 proton boundary layers (PBLs), (2) 10 and 3 magnetic holes and magnetic humps, respectively, and (3) 3 sector boundaries. The magnetic field strength changes across PBL, and the profile B(t) is linearly related to the hyperbolic tangent function, but the direction of B does not change. For each of the three sector boundaries, B rotated in a plane normal to the minimum variance direction, and the component of B along the minimum variance direction was zero within the uncertainties, indicating that the sector boundaries were tangential discontinuities. The structure of the sector boundaries was not as simple as that for PBLs. The average thickness of magnetic holes and humps (∼30 RL) was twice that of the PBLs (∼15 RL). The average thickness of the current sheets associated with sector boundaries was close to the thickness of the PBLs. Our observations are consistent with the hypothesis that magnetic holes and humps are solitons, which are initiated by the mirror mode instability, and evolve by nonlinear kinetic plasma processes to pressure balanced structures maintained by magnetization currents and proton drift currents in the gradients of B.
Originally posted by bigfatfurrytexan
reply to post by XPLodER
Would the "frothing" proton layer indicate an external source of electrons?
The heliosheath is glowing in X-rays due to charge-exchange collisions between solar wind ions and neutrals from the ISM. The overall appearance of the X-ray glow is determined by the interaction of the Solar wind and the local ISM. Spectral information, in turn, delivers valuable information on various parameters of the Solar wind (e.g., temperatures and densities of the minor species -- highly stripped ions) and the details of the Solar wind interaction with neutrals in the heliosheath region. Using numerical models for the heliosphere, we traced the charge-exchange evolution of 45 different solar wind ions along the wind stream-lines. The evolution from high-ionization states to low-ionization states is clearly seen, thus indicating the importance of the collisional thickness effect for the outer heliosphere composition. From charge-exchange transitions, we determine the X- ray emissivity and create surface brightness and spectral maps for any viewing direction (the outside view). The evolution of the wind ion-composition and the accompanying spectral changes across the heliosheath (from nose to tail) are remarkable and can serve as a diagnostic for the wind-ISM interaction. Chandra and XMM-Newton are well suited for this task. Similar models can be made for astrospheres of nearby Sun-like stars.
Originally posted by bigfatfurrytexan
reply to post by Phage
See, that is what i was wondering...how long before people realized that this discussion revolved around (in essence) aether.
That oft discarded, yet equally oft resurrected concept. Like Rasputin, it is!!!
But it was a fair response.
The physical basis of fluidics is pneumatics and hydraulics, based on the theoretical foundation of fluid dynamics. The term Fluidics is normally used when devices have no moving parts, so ordinary hydraulic components such as hydraulic cylinders and spool valves are not considered or referred to as fluidic devices. The 1960s saw the application of
imagine that the star bubble is inducing movement from the "galactic liquid" where the warping or twisting of space time (think stirred coffie) creats "creases" in the surface tension of the density, the bubble "falls into the crease" and is drawn towards the center of the vortex created by the stiring action.
Originally posted by Phractal Phil
I can't debate the specifics of the OP, here, because the idea of a fluid æther is just too repugnant to my intellect. The æther is an ultra-dense, ultra-stiff, foamy solid.
It is well known that e/m waves are transverse (shear) waves. Acoustic waves in a liquid can only be longitudinal (pressure) waves. I believe e/m waves propagate in the manner of acoustic shear waves in solids according to the formula, c = √(G/ ρ), where G is shear modulus and ρ is inertial density. If we knew either the density or shear modulus of the æther, we could determine the other from the speed of light. I suspect that the inertial density of the æther may be googols of times greater than that of a neutron star, but the æther has no gravitational density, as it is the medium of gravity. (How loud is air? How much current is a wire?) This is explained in detail at my website.
Minkowski space-time is warped because gravity bends light in Euclidean space, and the path of light is Minkowski's definition of a straight line. By redefining "straight line", Minkowski tacitly changed the meanings of all the other familiar parameters, like mass. This is why light has no mass in Minkowski space-time. In Euclidean space, light does have mass; m = E/c² = h/ λc, and gravity bends light because there is a gravitational force of attraction between any two masses, including two photons.
Particles move thru the æther without resistance because they are made of photons. Fundamental particles consist of photons orbiting one another due to the Higgs force, which converts the zero point energy of the photons to the rest mass of the particle. Planets don't drag the æther because waves don't drag their own medium.