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New Level of Genetic Diversity in Human RNA Sequences Uncovered

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posted on May, 19 2011 @ 11:24 PM
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There is an unknown process that is acting on RNA (one of the 3 major components ,including DNA and protein that is essential to all known forms of life) to cause it to not generate an exact replica of DNA from which it is copied.

In general,it is an unrecognized source of genetic diversity.


A detailed comparison of DNA and RNA in human cells has uncovered a surprising number of cases where the corresponding sequences are not, as has long been assumed, identical. The RNA-DNA differences generate proteins that do not precisely match the genes that encode them



The finding, published May 19, 2011, in Science Express, suggests that unknown cellular processes are acting on RNA to generate a sequence that is not an exact replica of the DNA from which it is copied. Vivian Cheung, the Howard Hughes Medical Institute investigator who led the study, says the RNA-DNA differences, which were found in the 27 individuals whose genetic sequences were analyzed, are a previously unrecognized source of genetic diversity that should be taken into account in future studies.


My question is,what is the source of this unknown genetic diversity?
Is it alien,is it God?
And do other creatures of the Earth have this also?

What are your thoughts?
Is this proof of our ancestry being tampered with by outside,otherworldly entities?

I know,the study was done on only 27 individuals,but what if they did more studies,what does this mean.

Maybe just nothing at all,just an advancement in the understanding of who and what we are.

www.physorg.com...



edit on 19-5-2011 by kdog1982 because: (no reason given)




posted on May, 19 2011 @ 11:29 PM
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Can we have a link please? Curious to know if theyve been eating GMO



posted on May, 19 2011 @ 11:32 PM
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Originally posted by Yrsal
Can we have a link please? Curious to know if theyve been eating GMO


Oh,sorry forgot it.

www.physorg.com...

As far as I know,they did not explore that possibility.
edit on 19-5-2011 by kdog1982 because: (no reason given)



posted on May, 19 2011 @ 11:40 PM
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Thanks
I read, interesting but little background info on the people in the study
Its been a while since I seriously looked into genetics, (and it was cats lol), but if I remember correctly proteins are the bits that tell a particular gene to turn on/off etc. I wonder if they are simply seeing a resistance to some environmental factors being incorporated.

Fascinating subject, thankyou for posting this.



posted on May, 19 2011 @ 11:42 PM
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how long back does the study go????? cause scientist are projecting that the sun is changing frequency and acting on matter and changing matter..........

Maybe this could be the root cause



posted on May, 19 2011 @ 11:47 PM
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reply to post by GodofWar411
 


Maybe only recent and it's cause could be the reason of our "awakening".
Maybe a genetic timer to cause it.


“Such uniformity makes us believe that there is a 'code' or 'guide' that mediates the RNA-DNA differences and they are not random events. ” Vivian G. Cheung


www.hhmi.org...




edit on 19-5-2011 by kdog1982 because: (no reason given)



posted on May, 20 2011 @ 12:00 AM
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Here's a thought: Studies have shown how meditation, positive thinking and will power in general have profound effects on our bodies' health and functions. It could be that human will/emotional states could be leading to the individual variations observed.



posted on May, 20 2011 @ 12:01 AM
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Some background biology


DNA RNA Hide All Difference: 1.Found in nucleus 2. sugar is deoxyribose 3. Bases are A,T,C,G 1.Found in nucleus and cytoplasm 2.sugar is ribose. 3. Bases are A,U,C,G hide Bases & Sugars: DNA is a long polymer with a deoxyribose and phosphate backbone and four different bases: adenine, guanine, cytosine and thymine RNA is a polymer with a ribose and phosphate backbone and four different bases: adenine, guanine, cytosine, and uracil hide Definition: A nucleic acid that contains the genetic instructions used in the development and functioning of all known living organisms RNA, single-stranded chain of alternating phosphate and ribose units with the bases adenine, guanine, cytosine, and uracil bonded to the ribose. RNA molecules are involved in protein synthesis and sometimes in the transmission of genetic information. hide Job/Role: Medium of long-term storage and transmission of genetic information The main job of RNA is to transfer the genetic code need for the creation of proteins from the nucleus to the ribosome. this process prevents the DNA from having to leave the nucleus, so it stays safe. Without RNA, proteins could never be made. Read more: DNA vs RNA - Difference and Comparison | Diffen www.diffen.com...



posted on May, 20 2011 @ 12:06 AM
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Originally posted by OrganicAnagram33
Here's a thought: Studies have shown how meditation, positive thinking and will power in general have profound effects on our bodies' health and functions. It could be that human will/emotional states could be leading to the individual variations observed.


Yes,it would be true if held in,like India or some other country where
meditation is used more frequently than other countries.
It's not revealed where these subjects where from.
edit on 20-5-2011 by kdog1982 because: (no reason given)



posted on May, 20 2011 @ 12:54 AM
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Originally posted by Yrsal
Thanks
I read, interesting but little background info on the people in the study
Its been a while since I seriously looked into genetics, (and it was cats lol), but if I remember correctly proteins are the bits that tell a particular gene to turn on/off etc. I wonder if they are simply seeing a resistance to some environmental factors being incorporated.

Fascinating subject, thankyou for posting this.



Proteins have numerous functions, telling a particular gene to turn on or off is one of them.


...proteins are essential parts of organisms and participate in virtually every process within cells.


en.wikipedia.org...

Proteins are a large portion of what you consist of. They are made of chains of amino acids in varying orders and of varying lengths. The combination and length will determine the structure that the chain of amino acids folds into, and therefore, determine their function. Messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) takes a copy of the genetic code from DNA in the cell nucleus and brings it to a ribosome in the cytoplasm where transfer RNA (tRNA) brings amino acids to assemble them according to the mRNA sequence (which is a copy of DNA). This is how a protein is born.



posted on May, 20 2011 @ 12:56 AM
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Originally posted by kdog1982

Originally posted by OrganicAnagram33
Here's a thought: Studies have shown how meditation, positive thinking and will power in general have profound effects on our bodies' health and functions. It could be that human will/emotional states could be leading to the individual variations observed.


Yes,it would be true if held in,like India or some other country where
meditation is used more frequently than other countries.
It's not revealed where these subjects where from.
edit on 20-5-2011 by kdog1982 because: (no reason given)


All of those subjects have varying emotional characteristics and habits, this could be the source of the variation. It is not necessary that they meditate to see the differences.



posted on May, 21 2011 @ 08:49 PM
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Firstly, a minor correction - proteins do control transcription and translation of genetic information with various transcription factor, promotor and enhancer proteins. They are, however, not the only players. There are also various chemicals and oligos that play a part.

Secondly, it's useless reading a media article about a scientific article. They are often bias and can misrepresent results. I found the article here, but it appears that you cannot get the full copy. Never-fear though, because I have access to it.

Related to the post about where the DNA is from:


We obtained sequences of DNA and RNA samples from immortalized B-cells of 27 unrelated Centre d’Etude du Polymorphisme Humain (CEPH) (16) individuals, who are part of the International HapMap (17, 18) and the 1000 Genomes (19) Projects.


They state that the reason for these differences is due to RNA editing, which occurs post-transcriptionally and has been fairly well studied - so no, it isn't God or aliens. Essentially, the point of this paper wasn't to say, 'Hey, look at this, isn't this odd?!', it was more to try and identify sites in the genomes of a few random individuals where this editing process occurs. Here is an excerpt:


DNA carries genetic information that is passed onto messenger RNA (mRNA) and proteins that perform cellular functions and it is assumed that the sequence of mRNA reflects that of the DNA. This assumed precision is important since mRNA serves as the template for protein synthesis. Hence, genetic studies have mostly focused on DNA sequence polymorphism as the basis of individual differences in disease susceptibility. Studies of mRNA and proteins analyze their expression and not sequence differences among individuals.

There are, however, known exceptions to the one-to-one relationship between DNA and mRNA sequences. These include errors in transcription (1, 2) and RNA-DNA differences that result from RNA editing (3–7). Errors are rare since proof-reading and repair mechanisms ensure the fidelity of transcription (8–10). RNA editing is carried out by enzymes that target mRNA post-transcriptionally: ADARs that deaminate adenosine to inosine which is then recognized by the translation machineries as a guanosine (A-to-G), and APOBECs which edit cytidine to uridine (C-to-U). Previously, sequence comparisons and computational predictions have identified many A-to-G editing sites (6, 7, 11–13). In contrast, C-to-U changes are rare; apolipoprotein B is one of a small number of known target genes of human APOBEC1 (14, 15).

edit on 21-5-2011 by hypervalentiodine because: (no reason given)



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