When a load of bricks, dumped on a corner lot, can arrange themselves into a house; when a handful of springs and
screws and wheels, emptied on a desk, can gather themselves into a watch, then and not until then will it seem sensible, to some of us at least, to
believe that all these thousands or millions of worlds could have been created, balanced and set to revolving in their separate orbits -- all without
any directing intelligence at all. – Bruce Barton
What is the meaning of life, the universe and everything?
42, of course
Our universe is a magnificent being. It’s such an odd thing yet stunningly so. On one hand there are fiery heavenly bodies twinkling majestically in
our night sky while on the other, there are oceans of invisible matter dancing elegantly. The universe is indeed one big machine. Processes occur
continuously and everything appears to be in sync. It is true, we are truly made of stardust...we are the remnants of stars gone poof...of stars gone
bang...of stars gone dead.
Yet it’s rather scary. We are a mere speck in this entire universe. The humans are generally a proud race...and maybe too proud. We are arrogant
little things; some believing that we are the only life out there. I, for one, can’t fathom to begin that out of the billions, gazillions of
astronomical objects out there that we are the only ones to be given the grace to form and develop.
Welcome to Part 3 of ‘The Weird and Wacky World of Physics.’ In this thread, I hope to delve into the universe itself and unravel just some of the
mysteries it conceals. Once again, if there’s anything you believe is wrong...correct me at anytime...I think this is rather a boring one but I hope
you enjoy it nevertheless...
The Inflationary Big Bang Theory Tune your television to any channel it doesn't receive and about 1 percent of the dancing static you see is accounted
for by this ancient remnant of the Big Bang. The next time you complain that there is nothing on, remember that you can always watch the birth of the
universe. – Bill Bryson
It all started with a Big Bang.
13.7 billion years ago, we believe that our own universe was created by this very event. BAM. It just...happened. But what caused this? Why did it
bang? What banged? These questions could indeed be the ultimate ones. The B.B is indeed the ‘Holy Grail’ of Physics. It was the beginning
of everything as we know it! The origin of space...the origin of time itself. The closer we get to the moment of the Big Bang, the more our equations
collapse.....our equations become befuzzling to say the least.
Every Frenchman, fry, fruit...every cat, cart, corn,...every pickle, panda, parakeet...every...well you get the idea. These and all are made up from
matter created in the first few seconds of the B.B. It is the defining event of our universe and everything in it. The more we learn
about the Big Bang, the deeper the mystery becomes and it once again, brings up more questions such as the multiverse...but how can we focus on that,
when unravelling and deciphering one is hard enough itself. All our matter, all of existence itself was compacted into a very small space...a
millionth of a billionth of a centimetre across at the dawn of the universe.
Everything, we believe, was at a single point, a single speck. It was unimaginably hot, infinitely small and super dense full of energy. ..and then it
expanded...it grew...and it evolved.
Quantum fluctuations created a singularity that was very hot and dense. Our universe at some point, scientists believe, stretched first from this
singularity...and as it did this, it cooled.
Photons became quarks...giving rise to the quarks from our current Standard Model:
The quarks became neutrons and protons...which lead to atoms and those clumped together to make stars and galaxies.
It’s thought the universe grew by a factor of at least 10^78 in volume between about 10^-35 and 10^-32 seconds after the Big Bang. Why did this
occur? There are some very interesting ideas which I hope to delve into. Inflationary Big Bang. The key is that it stretches space-time. This theory
has evolved from the Big Bang and was developed by Alan Guth in 1981. Not at all that long ago. Why do we really like this theory? It provides the
solution to two long standing problems with the standard B.B theory; the Horizon problem and the Flatness problem.
While there are many other theories such as God, strings and ‘The Steady State Theory,’ I aim to look at the most prevailing one of our time., a
theory that has a slight twist compared to world known BBT. Here’s a very great introduction to summarise the points I hope to glaze over. It
describes some of the evidence for the B.B, what actually occurred and the theory itself.
What Caused the Big Bang; Repulsive Gravity and the Inflaton Field There is nothing certain in this world. – Benjamin Franklin
It’s one of the biggest questions to confront physics....what caused our universe to magically appear? Changing just one digit or tweaking just one
law would mean our universe would be a strange and lethal place. Astronomical phenomena like ours would never exist, rather they would contort in a
different environment to produce something much more mind-boggling. In this section, I hope to brush over what may have created our universe.
We all learned at primary school that gravity is an attractive force. It is not only the invisible hand which keeps our feet on the ground but it’s
universal, providing us the entertainment of a beautiful dance; keeping the Earth in orbit around the Sun, that star orbiting around the centre of the
Milky Way, the Milky orbiting around it’s centre of gravity and so on. Fact is, although gravity is familiar, it’s proved to be the most
frustrating for physicists. They just can’t fit it in to their theories (except string theory...that’s why we’re in love with it :lol I
mentioned general relativity in my previous thread which is really mostly to do with gravity. It’s not possible to merge quantum theories with
general relativity leaving scientists still seeking their GUT. And it’s not just at the small scales gravity screws up. If you look at the grandest
cosmic scales...something, again, is just not right with gravity!
The Inflationary Big Bang is an enchanced version of the original. We know that in the first few seconds, there was a rapid increase in space...it
indeed did inflate. But what caused this?
It’s often said Einstein blinked...that he went back to his notebooks and tried to rectify his equations of general relativity to make them
symbolise that universe that was not only uniform but unchanging. And of course, this was completely sensible at the time. Imagine you were a strong
atheist, stubborn that your beliefs are correct. You’re delving into some mathematical equations that leave as a by-product that God exists; of
course you don’t believe this can occur and quickly rectify your numbers to get rid of it. That’s what Einstein did, he added what we know to be
the ‘cosmological constant.’ It’s one of the “products” that can be seen from G.R ; the amount of energy stitched into the fabric
space. Being the curious man he is, he fiddled with it. When entering a positive number for this, Einstein found that the fabric that now contains
positive energy would PUSH AWAY from each other, leaving us with...repulsive gravity.
Yes, you read correctly...repulsive gravity. How can that be? Well let’s take a look. Newton and Einstein both spent years trying to
reveal the mysteries that gravity concealed and succeeded in many ways. Both developed theories yet there is one massive difference between them.
Newton’s theory says that gravity arises solely from object’s mass. Bigger the mass/energy, greater the gravitational pull between 2 objects.
However Einstein’s theory takes into account one more thing; the mass AND its pressure. Just like positive pressure leads to an attractive
gravitational field, repulsive gravity can be caused by uniform negative pressure.
Uniform negative pressure? If I’m leaving some befuzzling faces, be not confuzzled! While positive pressure pushes outwards, negative pressure
pulls inwards. Think of a vaccum cleaner. When you turn it on, an area of negative pressure is formed in the bag of it, which sucks air in as it
tries to even out its internal pressure. Along with the air, the vacuum picks up particulate matter, leaving the floors cleaner. Another example can
include the inward pull of an elastic band.The inflationary theory suggerstss a kind of repulsive gravity that’s astoundingly short and thunderingly
intense. The repulsive gravity is indeed the answer to what caused that large expansion of space in a very short span of time. By answering what
caused this inflation, we can also answer a couple of questions e.g. ‘Why does the universe look the same?’ which I’ll talk about further on.
Some genius’ showed that negative pressure emerges naturally from quantum fields. (Physicists don’t make up everything ). Fields are funny
little things. You can’t see it’s there but you can see it’s effect. Think of a magnet. If you push 2 poles of 2 different magnets together, it
will either push or pull due to it’s magnetic field. Just like flames generate heat, magnets generate a magnetic field. There are a whole
variety of other fields such as the electric, strong and weak nuclear, electron, quark and neturino fields. We also believe there is a hypothetical
field called the ‘Inflaton Field’ which is carried by inflatons. It’s credited to generate the universe and fuelling its inflation.
Fields carry energy. The larger the value of the field, the larger the energy it has. The field’s value is constant, taking the same value
everywhere; therefore the same energy at each and every point even though the field’s value can vary place to place. One amazing guy, named Alan
Guth, came up with an amazing insight.
He suggested that just a uniform inflaton field does not only have uniform energy but also uniform negative pressure. This was then developed by a few
other guys to come to a refined model; where a burst of inflation can occur and then it being ‘switched off.’ It can all explained by my very poor
drawing below (yes as you can see my drawing skills are very poor...thank you Paint for letting me use your understandable tools.)
When you lift an object it is said to have (gravitational) potential energy. The object wants any excuse to relase that energy and if you let go, it
will form; converting it’s potential energy to kinetic energy. The energy carried away from a field’s nonzero values are also potentail energy.
Below is my friend, Pogston. In the flatter regions, his potential energy doesn’t change very much...but those big slopes you see, if he walks up
them...his potential energy would increase sharply. When Pogston rolls down the slope, as shown, inflation releases its potential energy to a lower
value. Like so, when the inflation is on the flatter regions it fills space with large potential energy and negative pressure. The energy isn’t lost
but it’s converted into a spray of particles; a uniform spread.
But there is a burning question, to me and to many others. The Goldilocks effect. The fine-tuning. Why is inflation, like so many other properties of
the Universe ‘just right’ to allow our universe to exist?
The Flatness Problem
Although relativity theory thinks of space-time as being a curved surface, astronomers sometimes describe the universe as ‘flat.’ It’s one where
the amount of matter present is just sufficient to halt it’s expansion but it’s insufficient to re-collapse it. This means that parallel light
rays remain parallel no matter how far they travel in space, that light’s path across the universe is relatively unaffected, however it can bend
itself around a massive body (as seen in general relativity.) To picture it:
The problem arises because we live in a universe that has an observed density parameter that is close to 1. It’s close to the “critical
density.”If we go above this critical density, the universe will have enough energy to stop expanding and then contract. If it’s less dense, the
gravitational attraction will not be enough to overcome the kinetic energy of the universe expanding. Thing is, the reason we are puzzled is that
we’re close to the critical density. After nearly 14 billion years of evolution, it appears not to have shifted much. Surely with the greater mass
in our universe (clumping of stars, galaxies), therefore the greater attraction we indeed should have a much higher density.
Seems like a pile of junk, doesn’t it?
Rather, this incredible engineering feat named WMAP (Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe
Very impressive work. It feels like we are one with the universe when we have no distractions amongst us. We control certain aspects of life still we
have little knowledge of whats out there. Thanks to this thread I feel like I have learned a lot more then what some 30 min program can come up with.
This is the real deal.
Hey OP... you better not let the fans of NASA and spaceflight (in the Space Exploration forum) hear you say "repulsive gravity" is real. It's not
supposed to be 'mainstream science'. You'll be run out of town on an empty rocket casing, with a tin hat on your head.
edit on 5/10/2011 by Larryman because: (no reason given)
star and flag
you have a text book like knowledge of the universe and astro physics
interesting read indeed
i personally dont beleive in the big bang
but as threads go this one is very informative
Awesome. And almost in simple enough terms that I almost understand after reading it twice. Just kidding. Found it very educational. I do have
questions...if you could check out my above post, I would be so grateful!
When a load of bricks, dumped on a corner lot, can arrange themselves into a house; when a handful of springs and screws and wheels, emptied on a
desk, can gather themselves into a watch, then and not until then will it seem sensible, to some of us at least, to believe that all these thousands
or millions of worlds could have been created, balanced and set to revolving in their separate orbits -- all without any directing intelligence at
all. – Bruce Barton
So who built the bricks and springs and placed them there in the first place?
edit on 5/10/2011 by CastleMadeOfSand because: (no reason
Star and flag just for all the time and effort put into this thread deserves that.
The only thing I'm wondering is what is the OP's theory?I may have missed it in all that information.
And I personally don't believe in the big bang theory because like God I've never seen it!When have you seen a big bang?Do they only happen
once?Because if it were to happen again,you would more than likely be able to see it..that's how big it would be.Plus planets would be colliding with
other planets.So because one has never seen a big bang then one can only assume they don't exist..like God!
We could say the big bang theory is the reason for all this intelligent design..or we could say God is responsible.A scientist would say the big bang
created all and the Christians would say God created all.Just because there is a scientific explanation for it all doesn't mean that there isn't
some other force at work here!Like God say.
I think dna is definitely proof of an intelligent design..never mind that all the stars have intelligent patterns,or how our brains are like computers
which itself is an intelligent design..or how we are able to reproduce..it can't be by accident!
Ahhh but just because you can't see fields..doesn't mean they're not there.
I didn't really put my opinion in..and just noticed that. I personally believe energy degraded, causing the B.B to occur...but that is just my
opinion. What could have caused it to degrade? Who knows..possibly the Gods.
I don't think it's by accident either to be fair The universe just fits together so well.
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