1. Earth and Mars
2. Why would we want to live on Mars?
3. The challenges of living on Mars
4. What will we need, and how can we get all these things?
5. Health & Fitness
Earth and Mars.
Diameter - 7,926 miles
Gravity - 2.66 times that of Mars
Average Distance from Sun - 93 million miles
Average Speed in Orbiting Sun - 18.5 miles per second
Tilt of Axis - 23.5 degrees
Length of Year - 365.25 Days
Length of Day - 23 hours 56 minutes
Temperature - Average 57 degrees F
Atmosphere - nitrogen, oxygen, argon, others
# of Moons - 1
Diameter - 4,220 miles
Gravity - .375 that of Earth
Average Distance from Sun - 142 million miles
Average Speed in Orbiting Sun - 14.5 miles per second
Tilt of Axis - 25 degrees
Length of Year - 687 Earth Days
Length of Day - 24 hours 37 minutes
Temperature - Average -81 degrees F
Atmosphere - mostly carbon dioxide some water vapour
# of Moons - 2
Mars receives only 43% of the sunshine that Earth does, but has no magnetosphere or ozone layer to block radiation.
Why would we want to live on Mars?
Population growth: As the population on earth increases we will eventually “run out of room”.
Growth Rate = (Population at end of period – Population at beginning of period) / Population at beginning of period.
1900 - 1.6 billion
1927 - 2 billion
1950 - 2.55 billion
1955 - 2.8 billion
1960 - 3 billion
1965 - 3.3 billion
1970 - 3.7 billion
1975 - 4 billion
1980 - 4.5 billion
1985 - 4.85 billion
1990 - 5.3 billion
1995 - 5.7 billion
1999 - 6 billion
2006 - 6.5 billion
2009 - 6.8 billion
2012 - 7 billion
2027 - 8 billion
2044 - 9 billion
2050 - 9.2 billion
The chart above shows past world population data back to the year 1900 and future world population projections through the year 2050.
Latest official current world population estimate, for mid-year 2010, is estimated at 6,852,472,823.
Global Warming: Global warming, or climate change, is a subject that shows no sign of cooling down. Earth is already showing many signs of worldwide
Average temperatures have climbed 1.4 degrees Fahrenheit (0.8 degree Celsius) around the world since 1880, much of this in recent decades, according
to NASA's Goddard Institute for Space Studies.
The rate of warming is increasing. The 20th century's last two decades were the hottest in 400 years and possibly the warmest for several millennia,
according to a number of climate studies. And the United Nations' Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) reports that 11 of the past 12
years are among the dozen warmest since 1850.
Graph showing air temperature through the decades.
But why Mars?
Water: One reason is that Mars is, of all the sun’s planets, the most promising second home for humanity. If some day humans are to live permanently
on Mars, we need to know what the Martian water table amounts to and how much water is there. For many years, we’ve believed there is water on Mars
because there’s ample geological evidence that liquid water existed on the surface of Mars long ago, when Mars had a denser atmosphere and somewhat
warmer temperatures. When Mars turned colder, there’s no mechanism by which all that water would have disappeared, so it’s almost certainly tied
up beneath the surface as permafrost, like the water beneath the lands of northern Alaska.
We know that life on Earth requires at least some water, so if there had never been any water on Mars, as may be the case with some bodies in the
solar system, then that would decrease the odds of there having been life in the past. We know life on Earth is quite tenacious, so if life existed on
Mars in the past it’s possible that it’s still there in some form. We don’t know. The debate about water on Mars, and how much there is and
under what conditions, has gone on for decades. There have been long swings of the pendulum back and forth.
The challenges of living on Mars.
Satisfying Basic needs of man:
When we design a spacecraft, we have to take into account all the extra facilities to be added to the spacecraft in order to make it inhabitable by
As discussed earlier the basic needs of man such as food, water, light, oxygen, eliminating body wastes of humans must be taken care of. All this adds
to the amount of payload, which directly increases the amount of fuel needed.
Man may not be very comfortable traveling in space for a long duration of time. That is because man's body is not adaptable to space. Though the
conditions at Mars are not as inhospitable as that of Venus, they nevertheless are not designed for human stay. Health disorders are also caused due
to the reduced gravitational forces of mars.
Earth's magnetic field blocks most of the cosmic radiation that is directed on it. But Mars has no such gravitational field. Astronauts have to face
enormous amount of cosmic radiation during such a long mission and there must be procedures to block it. Radiation is added to the already existing
cosmic radiation if nuclear propulsion engines are used.
Coming back to earth
When manned missions are sent to any place, it is of utmost importance to get the astronauts safely back on earth. But the distance to Mars is really
huge and it is not possible to carry enough fuel to get the crafts back onto earth.
All these reasons make success of manned mars missions difficult.
What will we need, and how can we get all these things?
Computers & communications
Vehicles & fuel
Life support equipment
Electronics, computers & communications gear
Robots, machinery, motors, tools
Solar panels, windmills
Games, books, musical instruments
Health & Fitness
Low gravity means loss of bone and muscle:
When people on Earth decide to start working out, they do so for several reasons. We exercise to keep our hearts healthy, tone muscles, reduce stress
or lose a little weight. For astronauts living in an environment like the International Space Station or Mars however, exercising isn't a matter of
choice it's a necessity. They need to keep moving in space for all of the above reasons and more.
Why are astronauts on board the ISS working out so much? Aside from keeping fit and staying on top of their game, the main reason astronauts work out
during trip into outer space is because they suffer from a condition similar to osteoporosis, a disease that results in a significant amount of bone
The terraforming of Mars is the hypothetical process by which the climate, surface, and known properties of Mars would be deliberately changed with
the goal of making it habitable by humans and other terrestrial life, thus providing the possibility of safe and sustainable colonization of large
areas of the planet.
In the future, population growth and demand for resources may create pressure for humans to colonize new habitats such as Mars, the Moon, and nearby
planets, as well as harvest the Solar System's energy and material resources. Terraforming Mars would hypothetically make Mars habitable to
So, should we colonize on Mars? You’re Opinions?