Originally posted by Andelise
ATS strikes me as having a few misogynists on board.
Originally posted by Andelise
Oh, I read it. I also know that the The United States Geological Survey (USGS) is a scientific agency of the United States government.
Tornado energy Most energy of a tornado is energy of motion: kinetic energy. From physics you may remember that the kinetic energy (KE) is KE = 1/2 m v2 where m = mass (of air in tornado) v = velocity (wind velocity in tornado). Let's assume that wind velocity is typical of an F3 tornado, around 300 km/hr. So v = 300 km hr-1 = 80 m s-1 To get the mass, recall that m = r V, where r = density and V = volume. The appropriate density is that of air: r = 1 kg m-3. To estimate the volume, make a simplifying assumption: approximate the tornado shape by a vertical cylinder with height h and radius r. The volume of the cylinder is V = p r2 h Assume the cylinder is 1 km in height and 1 km in radius. Substituting volume and density into the equation for mass, then substituting for mass in the expression for kinetic energy, KE = 1/2 p r2 h v2 = 1/2 p (103 m)2 (103 m) (80 m s-1)2 = 3 x 1012 J = 3 x 1019 ergs This energy is quite small in comparison with the energy of other phenomena we have studied (e.g. earthquakes and volcanic eruptions). Nevertheless, tornadoes are destructive because this energy is concentrated into a very small region, compared with the large regions that earthquakes and volcanoes affect.
Prior to about 1990, the vast majority of radar data in North America came from simple analogue radar systems that were developed in the mid 1950s and updated in the mid 1970s. Simple blasts of EM energy were sent out, and the strength and "rebound time" of the return pulses were analyzed to determine target strength and range. "Anomalous" patterns were frequent with these systems, owing usually to military chaff drops, nearby mountain ranges, and atmospheric density discontinuities which caused abnormal refraction of the radar beam. NWS Meteorologists at the time played 100 % of the role in differentiating between "anomalous" and real returns. (By the way, "anomalous" in weather radar speak simply means that the returns are not caused by precipitation or clouds. Thus, returns from mountain ranges, though completely valid and scientifically explainable, would be considered anomalous.)
With the implementation of the WSR-88D NEXRAD system in the early and mid 1990s, this changed completely. The new systems are much more powerful, much more sensitive and almost completely automatic. The new systems attempt to keep anomalous returns (called AP for Anomalous Propagation of the radar beam) to a minimum by using complex algorithms and filtering techniques. These same algorithms, however, can also block out or impair detection of meteorological targets if not applied properly, causing some very unnatural looking patterns. The radars can also measure the velocity of radar returns using the Doppler theory. Because of this, full color images of target velocity (measured inbound and outbound along each radial) are available for every elevation slice. This is what allows us to actually see and measure the "spin" within a tornado, as well as see it's shape! Cool, huh!?
So now we have a huge, new nationwide radar network with incredible capability. Things began to be seen on radar that had never been seen before. With time, they have almost all been fully explained. Swarms of bees, clouds of dust, migrating birds, airliners, highway traffic, subtle atmospheric boundaries (fronts), inversions, hail "spikes", cloud layers, virga (evaporating rainfall) and sunrise/sunset returns are just a few examples of phenomena that were initially unexplained. Those are just the things that have made it through the signal processing intact. There is an array of other AP phenomena that occur purely due to the automatic processing of the return radar signal. These can occur due to noise/feedback within the system and improper application of clutter suppression and attenuation applications/algorithms, among other things.
Originally posted by 13star
How do they get HAARP to cause an earthquake on the other side of the world ? I'm always looking for an answer to this question but I can't seem to get one. How does it get directed above a target area ? How can it do that without the host nation not suffering mass radio interference ?
(2)(A) The terms `weapon' and `weapons system' mean a device capable of any of the following:
(i) Damaging or destroying an object (whether in outer space, in the atmosphere, or on earth) by--
(I) firing one or more projectiles to collide with that object;
(II) detonating one or more explosive devices in close proximity to that object;
(III) directing a source of energy (including molecular or atomic energy, subatomic particle beams, electromagnetic radiation, plasma, or extremely low frequency (ELF) or ultra low frequency (ULF) energy radiation) against that object; or
(IV) any other unacknowledged or as yet undeveloped means.
(ii) Inflicting death or injury on, or damaging or destroying, a person (or the biological life, bodily health, mental health, or physical and economic well-being of a person)--
(I) through the use of any of the means described in clause (i) or subparagraph (B);
(II) through the use of land-based, sea-based, or space-based systems using radiation, electromagnetic, psychotronic, sonic, laser, or other energies directed at individual persons or targeted populations for the purpose of information war, mood management, or mind control of such persons or populations; or
(III) by expelling chemical or biological agents in the vicinity of a person.