Which Stars are friendly place for life to form.Lets see...
Sun like stars: G -type Main Sequence Stars account for around 5-10% of the stars in our galaxy yes a mere 5-10% but this type of star is the only
type of star we know (not saying there isn't life elsewhere) to have life on a planet orbiting its star. Until we find definite proof of this we can
just speculate. Yellow Stars are designated as G type. Our sun is actually a whitish colour because it is a rather hot G type star; but appears
yellowish because of the atmosphere
So we are here yes Earth. Life on Earth exists this is proof alone life can exists around these stars, maybe yellow dwarfs (G-type) are good stars for
life to form, yes but they only account for a small amount of stars 5-10% or maybe even less so we might want to check for life elsewhere lets explore
Yellow Dwarf: G Spectral Class V Lumniosty Type
Yellow Stars are thought to only exist as G type for approximately 10 billion years until its exhausted the Hydrogen fusing at the core; It will
become a Red Giant expanding possibly swallowing up some of the 4 inner planets Earth, Venus, Mercury, Mars.
Red Giant: Spectral Class O,B (blue) K,M (red)
Eventually the Red Giant will shed its outer layers forming a planetary Nebula. The Core left over will become a White Dwarf.
White Dwarf Compared to Earth
White Dwarfs actually spurred me to author a thread about this from the space.com i read this morning. The article posted earlier today.
I wanted to sort-of per se counter (or Contribute) their idea in the article they were stating somewhat weirdly in the first paragraph that white
dwarfs may be the best place for life to form.
I didn't really agree with that but i'm not saying life can't form around White Dwarfs. They explain in the article how when a star like ours goes red
giant and destroys the inner planets of its solar system the remaining outer planets could survive and therefor become habitable. Or as they state
here in the article i Quote
Still, more distant worlds could survive, and once this red giant sheds its outer layers of gas to leave behind a white dwarf, those outer planets
could eventually migrate into habitable zones, Agol said. New worlds could also have originated from the ring of debris left over by the star's
Since white dwarfs are so cool, planets would have to be very close to these dying stars in order to be within their habitable zones, perhaps 500,000
to 2 million miles (805,000 to 3.2 million kilometers) away — just far enough away for the star's gravitational field to not rip these worlds
Also they go on to say
The best areas for habitation for such planets might be toward the edges of the light zone, nearer the dark side of the planet, Agol speculated.
Yes these are good ideas by the author of the article; but the inner ring of debris would have to start planetary formation all over again. Therefore
life would probably take a while to form over time as is speculated through Earths formation. I didn't really altogether agree with what they said but
its a plausible idea but nowhere near plausible for them to state in the beginning of the Article that I Quote
Scientists may be searching for Earth-like worlds around stars like our sun, but a new study suggests that the best places to look for planets that
can support life may be the dying stars called white dwarfs.
I highly doubt these are the best places to search for life! White Dwarfs just don't seem like it after you read the article and take a look at the
evidence i present to you that other stars are much better! The process seems so volatile and unstable for life to form based on their ideas in the
article but its still a plausible idea.... just definitely not the best place! IMO
From what evidence i have found one of the best stars for us to search for life is K-Type Stars take a look.
K type Stars other wise known as Orange Dwarfs are a very great candidate for habitability in their solar system. They are little cooler than our G
type (sun); but they are just as good for habitability or even better mainly because of the fact these stars have a life span of 15-30 billion years
much better than a G type(Our sun) 10 billion years Life span. These Stars also make up about 1/8(12.5%) of all main sequence stars which means there
are more of them than there are G Type( Our sun) stars. Its is speculated that K type Stars may even be better than G-Type Stars for Habitability.
Check Source here on this speculation
Orange Dwarf: Spectral Class K-Type
Orange Dwarfs may be a bit cooler but their habitable zone would still be far enough away from their primary(star) so the planet would be able to
exist in the habitable zone and not become tidally locked to its star like the moon is to our planet Earth. On the other hand most Red Dwarfs are
though to have a habitable zone so close, that most planets existing in their habitable zone would be tidally locked. Therefore brining complications
into the habitability but possibly still would be able to support life.
Epsilon Eridani is actually an Orange Dwarf (K-Type) See here 10.5 light years distance with possible known planets and asteroid belts.
Red Dwarf Types much smaller and cooler than G -type Stars, but none the less in the Main Sequence of stars just like our Sun. Red Dwarfs actually
consist of about 75% of all the main sequence of stars so these stars are extremely common which makes it important for us to search for life around
these stars as well since they are most of our galaxy stars.
Red Dwarf: M or K Type
Since red Dwarfs habitable zone is so close to its primary(star) It may be hard for life to form where the planets are tidally locked to the star; but
i'm not saying it can't form there.
Gas Giants around red Dwarfs would be a very acceptable way for life to form around Red Dwarfs on the Gas Giants moons if the Gas Giant was in the
habitable zone the moons could become habitable it is a well accepted speculation i have seen in many articles. It is still only theory though we can
Red Dwarf Types are thought to exists for hundreds of billions of years maybe even trillions. That is one reason why they are a good candidate for
No Red Dwarfs (Unless Swallowed by black hole or Star Collision which is rare. Or mass Displacement from very close orbiting star.) have advanced to
the next phase in their evolution phase so it is speculative what happens when they exhaust their fuel.
There is a very highly well known Red Dwarf known as Gliese 581 That is thought to have 2 possible habitable planets. One of these speculated planets
( Not confirmed yet they are still arguing over its existence) is a planet that is 3-4 times the mass of Earth and is probably tidally locked with its
star the twilight zones of the planet would probably be the best places for life because of the moderate temperature there.
For life to be extremely ubiquitous in the universe red dwarfs will have to be able to sustain habitable planets considering Red Dwarfs make up 75 %
of main-sequence stars
]Red Dwarfs (M) Yellow Dwarfs (G) and Orange Dwarfs (K) are all in the lower section of the main sequence as you can see here. These Stars are
extremely Stable stars they are all in the main sequence this is a very good reason why they are great for life to exist in their solar systems
because they are relatively stable compared to other various types of stars.
An Example of the Main Sequence of Stars Showing Our Sun and Various Types not in the Main Sequence
So our best hope is too keep looking and with many advances in technology we will find life eventually in other solar systems if our race survives
long enough to witness this.
There is speculation we have found evidence of life via Mars Meteorites and UFO'S etc that is for another thread topic. Please refrain from this if
you can! You have your opinions though i'm not saying they aren't true. I leave the possibility open to anything.
KEPLER the greatest Achievment of NASA IMO other than the moon landing
The Kepler Telescope is great project run by NASA
that searches for Planets by looking for the dip in brightness when a planet transits its star.
This is our best hope for finding planets around various stars.
The chance that the planetary solar system is aligned from our viewpoint so that the planets will transit in-front of the star to be seen by Kepler is
very small only about 0.1-1% depending on the planet orbiting and transiting at the time and depending on the distance the planet is from said star. I
quote here from wiki
The probability of a random planetary orbit being along the line-of-sight to a star is the diameter of the star divided by the diameter of the
orbit. For an Earth-like planet at 1 AU transiting a Sol-like star the probability is 0.465%, or about 1 in 215. At 0.72 AU (the orbital distance
of Venus) the probability is slightly larger, at 0.65%; such planets could be Earth-like if the host star is a late G-type star such as Tau Ceti.
In addition, because planets in a given system tend to orbit in similar planes, the possibility of multiple detections around a single star is
actually rather high. For instance, if an alien Kepler-like mission observed Earth transiting the Sun, there is a 12% chance of also seeing Venus
There so now you know a bit how Kepler works lets see what Kepler found in its first 2 months of observation yes this is just the Data from the first
4-5 months observation after they finished analyzing the data which takes a while...
So now we see this is only the first 4-5 months of data.
So lets do this if at 1.AU (Earth Distance from sun) distance from the primary (star) we are seeing probably about less than half of the planets that
orbit these stars at 1 A.U in the Data because at this distance they would probably have an orbit relatively similar to an earth year when this is
only the first 4-5 months of Data. So its safe to say there may be many other planets in the real data as well that aren't show in this graph because
the farther the orbit the less likely the planet is to be detected by Kepler.
Even without taking into account these other planets that would be missing from the data as well as the minimal time of observation we have here which
is only 4-5 months ( We have to wait a little while for the other data releases) we can look at the bare minimum factor of these planets probability.
We take 1235 planets which most of them would probably be planets closer to their stars because of the short time of data we have only 4-5 months.
Then we can say lets take a number from the examples i showed above of for chances of solar system alignment. Venus is approx 0.65% chance and Earth
Ok so we know most of these planets would be close to their stars the ones in the Data as i explained Lets take the number 0.5%(+ or - a bit) in
between Earth and Venuses Chance of being observed by a hypothetical Kepler mission looking at our solar system.
So lets just say a hypothetical planet which would be in between Earth and Venus Distance is orbiting every single star being observed by Kepler lets
just say this for an example to make things easier. Kepler would find 0.5%(+ or - a bit) of these hypothetical planets because the overall chance to
find them would be dependent on the chance the solar system aligned with a hypothetical planet between Earth and Venus the chances would be 0.5%
Then we can look at how many solar systems as a whole would be aligned with Kepler based on the data approx 1% of them would be.
So 1% of 150,000(Stars being observed by Kepler)
thats about 1500 stars. That would have their solar system aligned for Kepler to observe the transits. So lets take 1235 planets(200 multiple planet
If we factor in multiple planet systems which most of the multiple-planet system confirmations are around just 2 planets only a few were 3-6 planets
we can say that approximately 900-1000 of these stars have planetary bodies and this is just the first 4-5 months of Data remember.
When you look at the big picture 900-1000/1500 planetary alignments means for sure there is at-least planets around 2/3 stars in this observed part of
the Galaxy this deems well for life. Indeed!
I think the Data released is does not explain it well enough to see exactly how the Data works out i just wanted to try and explain it so we could
really see whats going on.
The other 149,000 approx cannot be used in this Data because if they had solar systems they wouldn't align with Kepler telescope to see the transits.
Just wanted to help explain this if anyone didn't know this.
I am open to skepticism of the numbers i calculated from the Data if anyone wants to add something or see an error in my Data can you please correct
In my other Thread i talk about how many different types of planets may exist with hypothetical and real life forms lets take a look at these planet
types. Because my opinion is not limited to life existing just in the habitable Zone i believe that is just a staple mainstream scientists use because
we do not know that life can exist in other types of conditions yet we have not observed enough of even our own solar system to confirm this
I quote my self
Imagine the type of life bearing worlds that are possibly able to bear life if we keep an open mind Possible life bearing worlds Types from Modern
-Earth like planets
-Mars Size and smaller (with sufficient Atmosphere and Magnetosphere)
-Moons of various sizes around Gas Giants
-Gas Giants ( Possibility of life lets keep an open mind)
-Rogue Planets (Planets without a sun)
-Dwarf Planets/Asteroids (Possible Hollow sections with habitable space inside of it if the size isn't sufficient to sustain Magnetosphere and
- Unknown types we don't know yet -Possible Plasma planets( Just a Theory)
Final thoughts Lets explore the universe together and add anything to my thread that i missed out on! Please lets keep an open mind and discuss the
Universe together ! Yes and Kepler found 54 potentially habitable planet candidates i know this
If you see any errors in Data or what not that i posted please inform me !
This thread is a tribute to Carl Sagan and Bill Borucki!
Bill Borucki: kepler.nasa.gov...
Carl Sagan: en.wikipedia.org...
If you'd really like to learn more about Kepler go here
Now some pictures to end the my post
Better View on Keplers Findings
Hypothetical Habitable Planet around Gas Giant
Hypothetical Earth Like Exo-Planets
Now To end my Thread I will say let humans explore the universe in the coming age we will hold hands through our Journey and shall walk the path of
ASCENSION! ( I'm athiest/agnostic just using that word cause its a cool word)
We will Transcend!!!
edit on 13-4-2011 by XRaDiiX because: (no reason given)