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Which Stars are a friendly place for life to form.Lets see...

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posted on Apr, 13 2011 @ 03:11 PM
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Which Stars are friendly place for life to form.Lets see...



Sun like stars: G -type Main Sequence Stars account for around 5-10% of the stars in our galaxy yes a mere 5-10% but this type of star is the only type of star we know (not saying there isn't life elsewhere) to have life on a planet orbiting its star. Until we find definite proof of this we can just speculate. Yellow Stars are designated as G type. Our sun is actually a whitish colour because it is a rather hot G type star; but appears yellowish because of the atmosphere

So we are here yes Earth. Life on Earth exists this is proof alone life can exists around these stars, maybe yellow dwarfs (G-type) are good stars for life to form, yes but they only account for a small amount of stars 5-10% or maybe even less so we might want to check for life elsewhere lets explore other stars!

Yellow Dwarf: G Spectral Class V Lumniosty Type


Yellow Stars are thought to only exist as G type for approximately 10 billion years until its exhausted the Hydrogen fusing at the core; It will become a Red Giant expanding possibly swallowing up some of the 4 inner planets Earth, Venus, Mercury, Mars.

Red Giant: Spectral Class O,B (blue) K,M (red)


Eventually the Red Giant will shed its outer layers forming a planetary Nebula. The Core left over will become a White Dwarf.

White Dwarf Compared to Earth


White Dwarfs actually spurred me to author a thread about this from the space.com i read this morning. The article posted earlier today.
Link:www.space.com...

I wanted to sort-of per se counter (or Contribute) their idea in the article they were stating somewhat weirdly in the first paragraph that white dwarfs may be the best place for life to form.

I didn't really agree with that but i'm not saying life can't form around White Dwarfs. They explain in the article how when a star like ours goes red giant and destroys the inner planets of its solar system the remaining outer planets could survive and therefor become habitable. Or as they state here in the article i Quote



Still, more distant worlds could survive, and once this red giant sheds its outer layers of gas to leave behind a white dwarf, those outer planets could eventually migrate into habitable zones, Agol said. New worlds could also have originated from the ring of debris left over by the star's transformation.

Since white dwarfs are so cool, planets would have to be very close to these dying stars in order to be within their habitable zones, perhaps 500,000 to 2 million miles (805,000 to 3.2 million kilometers) away — just far enough away for the star's gravitational field to not rip these worlds apart.


Also they go on to say



The best areas for habitation for such planets might be toward the edges of the light zone, nearer the dark side of the planet, Agol speculated.


Yes these are good ideas by the author of the article; but the inner ring of debris would have to start planetary formation all over again. Therefore life would probably take a while to form over time as is speculated through Earths formation. I didn't really altogether agree with what they said but its a plausible idea but nowhere near plausible for them to state in the beginning of the Article that I Quote




Scientists may be searching for Earth-like worlds around stars like our sun, but a new study suggests that the best places to look for planets that can support life may be the dying stars called white dwarfs.


I highly doubt these are the best places to search for life! White Dwarfs just don't seem like it after you read the article and take a look at the evidence i present to you that other stars are much better! The process seems so volatile and unstable for life to form based on their ideas in the article but its still a plausible idea.... just definitely not the best place! IMO

From what evidence i have found one of the best stars for us to search for life is K-Type Stars take a look.


K type Stars other wise known as Orange Dwarfs are a very great candidate for habitability in their solar system. They are little cooler than our G type (sun); but they are just as good for habitability or even better mainly because of the fact these stars have a life span of 15-30 billion years much better than a G type(Our sun) 10 billion years Life span. These Stars also make up about 1/8(12.5%) of all main sequence stars which means there are more of them than there are G Type( Our sun) stars. Its is speculated that K type Stars may even be better than G-Type Stars for Habitability. Check Source here on this speculation

spacefellowship.com...

Orange Dwarf: Spectral Class K-Type


Orange Dwarfs may be a bit cooler but their habitable zone would still be far enough away from their primary(star) so the planet would be able to exist in the habitable zone and not become tidally locked to its star like the moon is to our planet Earth. On the other hand most Red Dwarfs are though to have a habitable zone so close, that most planets existing in their habitable zone would be tidally locked. Therefore brining complications into the habitability but possibly still would be able to support life.

Epsilon Eridani is actually an Orange Dwarf (K-Type) See here 10.5 light years distance with possible known planets and asteroid belts.

en.wikipedia.org...


Red Dwarf Types much smaller and cooler than G -type Stars, but none the less in the Main Sequence of stars just like our Sun. Red Dwarfs actually consist of about 75% of all the main sequence of stars so these stars are extremely common which makes it important for us to search for life around these stars as well since they are most of our galaxy stars.

Red Dwarf: M or K Type


Since red Dwarfs habitable zone is so close to its primary(star) It may be hard for life to form where the planets are tidally locked to the star; but i'm not saying it can't form there.

Gas Giants around red Dwarfs would be a very acceptable way for life to form around Red Dwarfs on the Gas Giants moons if the Gas Giant was in the habitable zone the moons could become habitable it is a well accepted speculation i have seen in many articles. It is still only theory though we can at-least speculate.

Red Dwarf Types are thought to exists for hundreds of billions of years maybe even trillions. That is one reason why they are a good candidate for life.

No Red Dwarfs (Unless Swallowed by black hole or Star Collision which is rare. Or mass Displacement from very close orbiting star.) have advanced to the next phase in their evolution phase so it is speculative what happens when they exhaust their fuel.

There is a very highly well known Red Dwarf known as Gliese 581 That is thought to have 2 possible habitable planets. One of these speculated planets ( Not confirmed yet they are still arguing over its existence) is a planet that is 3-4 times the mass of Earth and is probably tidally locked with its star the twilight zones of the planet would probably be the best places for life because of the moderate temperature there.

For life to be extremely ubiquitous in the universe red dwarfs will have to be able to sustain habitable planets considering Red Dwarfs make up 75 % of main-sequence stars


]Red Dwarfs (M) Yellow Dwarfs (G) and Orange Dwarfs (K) are all in the lower section of the main sequence as you can see here. These Stars are extremely Stable stars they are all in the main sequence this is a very good reason why they are great for life to exist in their solar systems because they are relatively stable compared to other various types of stars.

An Example of the Main Sequence of Stars Showing Our Sun and Various Types not in the Main Sequence



So our best hope is too keep looking and with many advances in technology we will find life eventually in other solar systems if our race survives long enough to witness this.

There is speculation we have found evidence of life via Mars Meteorites and UFO'S etc that is for another thread topic. Please refrain from this if you can! You have your opinions though i'm not saying they aren't true. I leave the possibility open to anything.


KEPLER the greatest Achievment of NASA IMO other than the moon landing


The Kepler Telescope is great project run by NASA
that searches for Planets by looking for the dip in brightness when a planet transits its star. This is our best hope for finding planets around various stars.

The chance that the planetary solar system is aligned from our viewpoint so that the planets will transit in-front of the star to be seen by Kepler is very small only about 0.1-1% depending on the planet orbiting and transiting at the time and depending on the distance the planet is from said star. I quote here from wiki



The probability of a random planetary orbit being along the line-of-sight to a star is the diameter of the star divided by the diameter of the orbit.[39] For an Earth-like planet at 1 AU transiting a Sol-like star the probability is 0.465%, or about 1 in 215. At 0.72 AU (the orbital distance of Venus) the probability is slightly larger, at 0.65%; such planets could be Earth-like if the host star is a late G-type star such as Tau Ceti.

In addition, because planets in a given system tend to orbit in similar planes, the possibility of multiple detections around a single star is actually rather high. For instance, if an alien Kepler-like mission observed Earth transiting the Sun, there is a 12% chance of also seeing Venus transit.


There so now you know a bit how Kepler works lets see what Kepler found in its first 2 months of observation yes this is just the Data from the first 4-5 months observation after they finished analyzing the data which takes a while...



So now we see this is only the first 4-5 months of data.

So lets do this if at 1.AU (Earth Distance from sun) distance from the primary (star) we are seeing probably about less than half of the planets that orbit these stars at 1 A.U in the Data because at this distance they would probably have an orbit relatively similar to an earth year when this is only the first 4-5 months of Data. So its safe to say there may be many other planets in the real data as well that aren't show in this graph because the farther the orbit the less likely the planet is to be detected by Kepler.

Even without taking into account these other planets that would be missing from the data as well as the minimal time of observation we have here which is only 4-5 months ( We have to wait a little while for the other data releases) we can look at the bare minimum factor of these planets probability.

We take 1235 planets which most of them would probably be planets closer to their stars because of the short time of data we have only 4-5 months. Then we can say lets take a number from the examples i showed above of for chances of solar system alignment. Venus is approx 0.65% chance and Earth 0.465% chance.

Ok so we know most of these planets would be close to their stars the ones in the Data as i explained Lets take the number 0.5%(+ or - a bit) in between Earth and Venuses Chance of being observed by a hypothetical Kepler mission looking at our solar system.

So lets just say a hypothetical planet which would be in between Earth and Venus Distance is orbiting every single star being observed by Kepler lets just say this for an example to make things easier. Kepler would find 0.5%(+ or - a bit) of these hypothetical planets because the overall chance to find them would be dependent on the chance the solar system aligned with a hypothetical planet between Earth and Venus the chances would be 0.5%

Then we can look at how many solar systems as a whole would be aligned with Kepler based on the data approx 1% of them would be.

So 1% of 150,000(Stars being observed by Kepler)
thats about 1500 stars. That would have their solar system aligned for Kepler to observe the transits. So lets take 1235 planets(200 multiple planet systems)

If we factor in multiple planet systems which most of the multiple-planet system confirmations are around just 2 planets only a few were 3-6 planets we can say that approximately 900-1000 of these stars have planetary bodies and this is just the first 4-5 months of Data remember.

When you look at the big picture 900-1000/1500 planetary alignments means for sure there is at-least planets around 2/3 stars in this observed part of the Galaxy this deems well for life. Indeed!

I think the Data released is does not explain it well enough to see exactly how the Data works out i just wanted to try and explain it so we could really see whats going on.

The other 149,000 approx cannot be used in this Data because if they had solar systems they wouldn't align with Kepler telescope to see the transits. Just wanted to help explain this if anyone didn't know this.

I am open to skepticism of the numbers i calculated from the Data if anyone wants to add something or see an error in my Data can you please correct me.

In my other Thread i talk about how many different types of planets may exist with hypothetical and real life forms lets take a look at these planet types. Because my opinion is not limited to life existing just in the habitable Zone i believe that is just a staple mainstream scientists use because we do not know that life can exist in other types of conditions yet we have not observed enough of even our own solar system to confirm this suspicion.

I quote my self



Imagine the type of life bearing worlds that are possibly able to bear life if we keep an open mind Possible life bearing worlds Types from Modern Strict Science
-Earth like planets
-Super Earths
-Mars Size and smaller (with sufficient Atmosphere and Magnetosphere)
-Moons of various sizes around Gas Giants
-Desert Planets
-Ocean planets
-Ice planets
-Lava planets
-Gas Giants ( Possibility of life lets keep an open mind)
-Rogue Planets (Planets without a sun)
-Dwarf Planets/Asteroids (Possible Hollow sections with habitable space inside of it if the size isn't sufficient to sustain Magnetosphere and atmosphere)
- Unknown types we don't know yet -Possible Plasma planets( Just a Theory)


Final thoughts Lets explore the universe together and add anything to my thread that i missed out on! Please lets keep an open mind and discuss the Universe together ! Yes and Kepler found 54 potentially habitable planet candidates i know this


If you see any errors in Data or what not that i posted please inform me !


This thread is a tribute to Carl Sagan and Bill Borucki!

Bill Borucki: kepler.nasa.gov...
Carl Sagan: en.wikipedia.org...




If you'd really like to learn more about Kepler go here
www.youtube.com...

Now some pictures to end the my post

Better View on Keplers Findings



Hypothetical Habitable Planet around Gas Giant



Hypothetical Earth Like Exo-Planets



Now To end my Thread I will say let humans explore the universe in the coming age we will hold hands through our Journey and shall walk the path of ASCENSION! ( I'm athiest/agnostic just using that word cause its a cool word)

We will Transcend!!!


edit on 13-4-2011 by XRaDiiX because: (no reason given)




posted on Apr, 13 2011 @ 03:17 PM
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Quality post with lost of good info...

But why look elsewhere - forget humans from last 100 years [a mere blip on the life of a planet] , What are the chances or cross contamination of other planets e.g. Mars from life on Earth in the last 100,000 years?

In the last 40 years we have found bacteria alive deep underground, in sulphur laden atmospheres and in temperatures where water would boil. .So cross contamination and survival in our own system is a real possibility,



posted on Apr, 13 2011 @ 03:20 PM
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S&F Thanks for a very well thought and presented post. While this is information I knew and understood it got me thinking about stars and the possibilities, feel another long night coming on. Thanks.
edit on 13/4/11 by barkingdogamato because: Spelling



posted on Apr, 13 2011 @ 03:22 PM
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reply to post by templar knight
 


Yes we must also explore our Solar System please take the time to read the thread!
There could be life elsewhere in our solar system especially Titan we just don't know yet.
Underground Oceans intrigue me as well


Maybe life on Gas Giants too who knows we've never been close enough to observe life if its present there who knows.. lets keep possibilities open to speculation


I just want to try and get people interested in Space i love space and stuff like that i've been interested in it since i was like 10 years old always reading space articles and stuff.. peace
edit on 13-4-2011 by XRaDiiX because: (no reason given)



posted on Apr, 13 2011 @ 03:26 PM
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reply to post by barkingdogamato
 



Ty i just love to get people talking and interested in space i think its interesting how many possibilities there are out there. I personally think life is everywhere as in very common we just don't know yet.



posted on Apr, 13 2011 @ 03:27 PM
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Great thread!!

but....

life can exists around ANY star.

Mankind is too compelled to state that life can only exist where conditions are like 'our' planet, or planets that orbit around a star "like ours"

We are NOT the center of the universe and by no means are we the only life form...

Just because Mercury is too hot for us, it is too hot FOR US

Just because Neptune is too cold for us, it is too cold FOR US

Again, great informative thread.

I'd just like to see mankind peel back some of our arrogance and realize that conditions that support life are more vast than the ones we have.



posted on Apr, 13 2011 @ 03:32 PM
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reply to post by ButterCookie
 


Yes i never mean't to say it can't form around any type of star just stating which are the best for Life probably in general based on the main stream views of how Earth is etc. I still think tons of other kinds of Life can exist around all the other types of stars and there are tons of them!

I always will keep an open mind to this!


And i wanted to keep Thread title short so i couldn't put Which Stars are friendly for Earth-like life to form... Lets see lol
edit on 13-4-2011 by XRaDiiX because: (no reason given)



posted on Apr, 13 2011 @ 03:33 PM
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Originally posted by XRaDiiX
reply to post by barkingdogamato
 



Ty i just love to get people talking and interested in space i think its interesting how many possibilities there are out there. I personally think life is everywhere as in very common we just don't know yet.



STAR!!

I agree with you on this!! I love talking about this topic ( a deep deep passion for me).

I find that when a person has very little knowledge about how vast the universe is, they tend not to believe in other life forms,but the more they learn and grasp some sort of idea about the billions of stars, billions of galaxies, then they can see that life can't logically be limited to planet Earth.

Realizing our 'place' in the universe helps people to realize that life does not have to occur in conditions like ours (human arrogance)

and with that, people should understand that no other (alien ) civilization feels compelled to 'prove' themselves to us either.



posted on Apr, 13 2011 @ 03:37 PM
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reply to post by ButterCookie
 


Indeed I listed a number of planets for life possible lifeforms to form on there may be plasma based life forms and life forms we can't even comprehend the Universe is so vast we don't know whats out there we haven't really been anywhere yet except on Mars with the rovers!

Also on Titan with a lander but that was a little lame! There could be life all over the place in oceans underground Europa and the other moons of Jupiter Saturn Etc. There are almost infinite possibilities its fun to think about!


If you have any types of Planets you wanna add to being habitable please add them maybe all of them are habitable who knows until we look there and thoroughly search we just don't know! Its fun to speculate, on the matter. Maybe there is even forms of plasma life on the sun who knows...

BTW cool Avatar 1984!
edit on 13-4-2011 by XRaDiiX because: (no reason given)



posted on Apr, 13 2011 @ 03:43 PM
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reply to post by XRaDiiX
 


THANKS!!!!

You are soo correct on this information.

(Actually, I posted most of that info for the would-be debunkers who may lurk:lol


I could talk about this subject endlessly, as the stars are us, and we are the stars.

BTW, I've noticed (books, movies, etc) a lot of mention about Titan being very habitable for us...which I think is cool!!

Plus you made a very interesting point that taught me something...it is more probable that life occurs around a star that has sustainable life for at least a million years, and that makes logical sense. For example, a white or yellow star would be better for life than a red giant, because the red giant is at the end of its life, and won't be able to allow the planets enough time for evolution and the sort....



edit on 13-4-2011 by ButterCookie because: (no reason given)



posted on Apr, 13 2011 @ 03:46 PM
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reply to post by ButterCookie
 


Yes trying to keep this thread active i want more people to see it


What do you guys think about the Kepler findings? I've always thought that Planets were common around stars the Data just proves it thought we can finally say that the galaxy is full with billions of planets! Maybe billions of Earth-like planets as well as i point out in my other Thread





posted on Apr, 13 2011 @ 03:48 PM
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reply to post by XRaDiiX
 


you made a very interesting point that taught me something...it is more probable that life occurs around a star that has sustainable life for at least a million years, and that makes logical sense. For example, a white or yellow star would be better for life than a red giant, because the red giant is at the end of its life, and won't be able to allow the planets enough time for evolution and the sort....




posted on Apr, 13 2011 @ 03:52 PM
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reply to post by ButterCookie
 


Yes and they eventually become a White Dwarf which has to have a planet extremely close to its star. In-turn making it tidally locked for it to be a somewhat Earth like planet. Although we keep the possibility open that Very Cold and Very hot planets may have life living on them as well.


Life is very abundant in the Universe i hope! It would make things much more interesting!



posted on Apr, 13 2011 @ 03:57 PM
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My thread in my signature about the Holographic Universe and Space-Time, depicts what I've had downloaded, and infinite universe, within what could be a grain of sand or an atom even for that matter. The suns/stars are the projectors. All planets/moons have life, on various channels, the infinite channels exist both in terms of space-time and density. They are not all subject to earth's universe realm's laws of physics. And we don't see much, because when hubble looks out, its seeing earth's realm, not the patchwork quilt, collage that exists. Time itself is a program in the mind related to orbit.

If for example, you were to take a bot, and program him so he would experience your day in 15 minutes, you would disappear from sight, he would go in extreme slow mode or be standing still, so you would be reading a book, or magazine to keep up on his progress, like our Higher Ups with us. There is a lot we don't see, and we're prenatal in our understanding and learning.
edit on 13-4-2011 by Unity_99 because: (no reason given)



posted on Apr, 13 2011 @ 04:09 PM
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reply to post by Unity_99
 


Very Interesting Speculation! I will check out your thread!. I have to go for a bit so i won't be able to right away.


Anyone one else seeing this please take the time to read the Thread it took me a long time to do



posted on Apr, 13 2011 @ 04:15 PM
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reply to post by ButterCookie
 


i get what you are trying to say and i do agree that there will be life found in very hospitable envirorments

but saying this believe that mercury is to hot/close to the sun/baren to habor any life, and both neptune and jupiter have to much pressure in there atmosphere that i don't believe life could flourish

i could be proven wrong one day, lets hope i am because that would be awesome but i feel there are just some enviroments that life cannot flourish under



posted on Apr, 13 2011 @ 04:31 PM
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Originally posted by caf1550
reply to post by ButterCookie
 


i get what you are trying to say and i do agree that there will be life found in very hospitable envirorments

but saying this believe that mercury is to hot/close to the sun/baren to habor any life, and both neptune and jupiter have to much pressure in there atmosphere that i don't believe life could flourish

i could be proven wrong one day, lets hope i am because that would be awesome but i feel there are just some enviroments that life cannot flourish under


Understood.

But sometimes its hard for us to take humankind and our conditions (what we can or can't live in) and realize that these are simply OUR conditions...

surely we can't know what other entities can or can't live in...

It gets hard for us to think outside our 'human' box, but thinking about the universe and its vastness, we must.
edit on 13-4-2011 by ButterCookie because: (no reason given)
edit on 13-4-2011 by ButterCookie because: (no reason given)



posted on Apr, 13 2011 @ 05:27 PM
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reply to post by ButterCookie
 


Yes once we will realise that life may exist in many places we never once thought and the meaning of life may even change in definition based on what we find.


Interesting stuff! Lets keep this Thread rolling Hope i get lots of replies tonight!
edit on 13-4-2011 by XRaDiiX because: (no reason given)


I forgot to post the Link about Gliese 581 in my thread check it out here
en.wikipedia.org...

For anyone who hasn't read the thread please do so!
edit on 13-4-2011 by XRaDiiX because: (no reason given)



posted on Apr, 13 2011 @ 06:40 PM
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reply to post by caf1550
 


Lets hope that life is abundant throughout the Universe. There may be billions of Earth-like planets in the galaxy imagine what other types of planets are out there so many variations its hard to imagine what could be out there. I can't wait until we can send probes to other solar Systems i think it might be many decades away thought.

Because not enough people are interested in Space. I guess too much madness is going on with our own planet for people to care!

Thx alot guys for the S & F's



posted on Apr, 13 2011 @ 07:49 PM
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Anyone else feel free to contribute to the Thread Its getting a little slow in Here

Discuss any Various topics i brought up in the Thread i would be delighted to answer or reply to whatever you have to input!





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