posted on Mar, 22 2011 @ 09:06 AM
The term caliphate "dominion of a caliph ('successor,')," (from the Arabic خلافة or khilāfa, Turkish: Halife ) refers to the first system of
government established in Islam, and represented the political unity of the Muslim Ummah (nation). In theory, it is a constitutional republic (see
Constitution of Medina), which means that the head of state, the Caliph, and other officials are representatives of the people and must govern
according to an existing constitutional law that limits the government's power over citizens.