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The 1896 Meiji-Sanriku earthquake was highly destructive, generating one of the most devastating tsunamis in Japanese history, destroying about 9,000 homes and causing at least 22,000 deaths. This magnitude 7.2 event occurred at 19:32 (local time) on June 15, 1896. The magnitude of the tsunami (Mt = 8.2) was much greater than expected for the estimated seismic magnitude and this earthquake has been regarded as being part of a distinct class of events, a tsunami earthquake.
The 1923 Great Kantō earthquake (関東大震災, Kantō daishinsai?) struck the Kantō plain on the Japanese main island of Honshū at 11:58:44 am JST on September 1, 1923. Varied accounts hold that the duration of the earthquake was between 4 and 10 minutes. The Kantō quake killed between 100,000 and 140,000 people, making it the deadliest earthquake ever to strike Japan.
The 1933 Sanriku earthquake (昭和三陸地震, Shōwa Sanriku Jishin?) was a major earthquake whose associated tsunami caused widespread damage to towns on the Sanriku coast of the Tōhoku region of Honshū, Japan in 1933.
The 1946 Nankaidō earthquake was a major earthquake in Nankaidō, Japan. It occurred on December 20, 1946 at 19:19 UTC. The earthquake was colossal, measuring 8.1 on the moment magnitude scale, and was felt from Northern Honshū to Kyūshū. However, these measurements are often between 8.1–8.4 magnitude.
The 1948 Fukui earthquake (福井地震, Fukui jishin?) was a major earthquake in Fukui Prefecture, Japan. The magnitude 7.1 quake struck at 5:13 p.m. on June 28, 1948 (the then Japan Daylight Saving Time; JDT). The strongest shaking occurred in the city of Fukui, where it was recorded as 6 (equivalent to the current 7) on the Japan Meteorological Agency seismic intensity scale. The coordinates of the earthquake were 36゜10.3'N 136゜17.4'E (around the town of Maruoka)
31 killed, 72 injured; 713 houses destroyed, 5,980 damaged. 28 killed and warehouses destroyed at Kushiro. 3 killed and 309 houses destroyed at Kiratapu. 1,000 houses destroyed or damaged at Shiranuka and 400 schools collapsed at Sapporo. 10-foot tsunami
The 1963 Kuril Islands earthquake occurred at 05:17 UTC, on October 13. The earthquake had a magnitude of 8.5 and was followed by a Mw=7.8 event seven days later. Both earthquakes triggered tsunamis that were observed around the northern part of the Pacific ocean.
The earthquake is called the Niigata earthquake because of the extensive damage caused by the shock in this town in spite of it being situated about 50 km south of the epicenter; it was one of the two great destructive earthquakes of 1964. Although the number of victims was fortunately small (36 dead or missing, 385 injured), the material damage was great: 3,534 houses destroyed, 11,000 houses damaged. Our Japanese colleagues immediately investigated the phenomenon in detail (Aki, 1966; Falconer, 1964; IISEE earthquake report, 1965; Japan Nat. Comm. on Earthquake Engineering, 1964; Kawasumi, 1965). The earthquake occurred at a depth of 57 km below the Sea of Japan near the island of Awa-shima, in the deepest of the old formations in the tectonic zone called "internal arc of Honshu." A tsunami generated by the earthquake ravaged the west coast of Honshu, and more particularly the town of Niigata, where the wave reached a height of 1.8 meters; the tsunami was more than 4 meters high at Iwafune on the coast near the epicenter, and 3 meters on the coasts of Sado Island. A detailed study of the effects of the tsunami has been published
Two adjacent segments of Pacific-Eurasia plate boundary along the Kuril Islands arc were broken during two great shallow thrust earthquakes that occurred in 1963 (moment magnitude, Mw = 8.5) and 1969 (Mw = 8.2), respectively
5/16 00:49 UTC 40.90N 143.34E 26km Ms=8.2, Tokachi-oki, Japan
The death toll of this earthquake was over 200. It is the largest earthquake in the Japan region in the 1960s, and has been studied extensively by many Japanese seismologists.
The 1978 Miyagi earthquake (１９７８年宮城県沖地震, 1978 nen Miyagi-ken-oki jishin?) occurred at 17:14 local time (08:14 UTC) on 12 June. It had a magnitude of 7.7, JMA magnitude 7.4, and triggered a small tsunami. The earthquake reached a maximum intensity of Shindo 5 in Sendai and caused 28 deaths and 1,325 injuries.
On May 26, 1983 at 11:59:57 local time, a magnitude-7.7 earthquake occurred in the Sea of Japan, about 100 km west of the coast of Noshiro in Akita Prefecture, Japan. Out of the 107 fatalities, all but four were killed by the resulting tsunami, which struck communities along the coast, especially Aomori and Akita Prefectures and the east coast of Noto Peninsula. Footage of the tsunami hitting the fishing harbor of Wajima on Noto Peninsula was broadcast on TV. The waves exceeded 10 meters in some areas. Three of the fatalities were along the east coast of South Korea (whether North Korea was affected is not known).
The 1993 southwest-off Hokkaido earthquake (北海道南西沖地震, Hokkaidō Nansei Oki Jishin?) occurred at 13:17 UTC on 12 July 1993 in the Sea of Japan near the island of Hokkaido. It had a magnitude of 7.7 on the moment magnitude scale and a maximum felt intensity of VIII (Destructive) on the Mercalli intensity scale. It triggered a major tsunami that caused deaths on Hokkaidō and in southeastern Russia, with a total of 230 fatalities recorded. The island of Okushiri was hardest hit, with 165 casualties from the earthquake, the tsunami and a large landslide.
A major earthquake (magnitude Ms 8.1) occurred near Shikotan Island, in the South Kuril Island Group of Russia's Far East, at 13:23 UTC, October 4, 1994 (0:23 a.m. Oct. 5, local time). The quake was extensively damaging in the Kuril Islands, killing 11 people and injuring 242. It caused several landslides and generated a destructive tsunami. 8 people died from the direct effects of the tsunami.
Two people were killed, more than 200 injured and damage (VI JMA) in the Hachinohe area. Felt (V JMA) at Aomori, Morioka and Mutsu; (IV JMA) at Miyako and Ofunato; (III JMA) at Sendai. Also felt (IV JMA) at Hakodate, Obihiro, Tomakomai and Urakawa; (III JMA) at Sapporo, Hokkaido. Felt as far away as Tokyo. Local tsunami generated with maximum wave heights (peak-to-trough) recorded at the following selected tide stations: 110 cm. at Miyako, 88 cm. at Hachinohe, 54 cm. at Ofunato, 10 cm. at Choshi, Honshu; 48 cm. at Urakawa, 36 cm. at Hakodate and Kushiro, Hokkaido.
The Great Hanshin earthquake, or Kobe earthquake, was an earthquake that occurred on Tuesday, January 17, 1995, at 05:46 JST (16 January at 20:46 UTC) in the southern part of Hyōgo Prefecture, Japan. It measured 6.8 on the moment magnitude scale (USGS), and Mj7.3 (adjusted from 7.2) on JMA magnitude scale. The tremors lasted for approximately 20 seconds. The focus of the earthquake was located 16 km beneath its epicenter, on the northern end of Awaji Island, 20 km away from the city of Kobe.
An earthquake with magnitude 7.0 occurred in northern Japan at 6:24 pm local time (0924 UTC) May 26, 2003. Its focal depth is 71 kilometers below the sea floor, off the coast of northern Miyagi Prefecture. The epicenter was located lat. 38.8 N., long 141.68 E. (about 100km northern Sendai city) as shown in Figure 1. The very high PGA values (1.1G at MYG011, 1.0G at IWT007) and high JMA intensity (at many sites 6-(about 9 in MMI scale)) were observed. The distribution of seismic intensity (in JMA scale) is shown in Figure 2. This earthquake caused total 171 injured persons (slightly injured person: 148, seriously injured person: 23). No severe structural damage, death or missing persons were reported. The economic losses due to the quake are 97.3 million dollars (FDMA). The damage due to the earthquake is extremely small comparing with recorded very high PGA values and seismic intensity.
The 2003 Hokkaidō earthquake (aka 2003 Tokachi-Oki Earthquake 十勝沖地震 (2003 Tokachi-Oki Jishin?) ) occurred on September 25, 2003 in Hokkaidō, Japan. It measured 8.3 on the Moment magnitude scale and caused extensive damage, destroying roads all around Hokkaidō, and caused several power outages and further damaging landslides. A number of people were injured, but none killed The earthquake also caused a tsunami reaching 4 meters in height. The earthquake's presence was felt throughout Japan, stretching all the way to Honshu and Tokyo. The earthquake was the largest in 2003.
The Chūetsu Earthquakes (中越地震, Chūetsu jishin?) occurred at 5:56 p.m.(local time) on Saturday, October 23, 2004 (0856 UT, same day). The Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA) has named it the Heisei 16 Niigata Prefecture Chuetsu Earthquake (平成16年新潟県中越地震) (Romaji: Heisei ju-roku nen Niigata-ken Chuetsu Jishin) or The Mid Niigata Prefecture Earthquake of 2004. Niigata Prefecture is located in the Hokuriku region of Honshū, the largest island of Japan. The initial earthquake caused noticeable shaking across almost half of Honshū, including parts of the Tohoku, Hokuriku, Chūbu, and Kantō regions
The earthquake began on Tuesday, August 16, 2005, and affected Japan's northeastern coast. It triggered a tsunami warning, and buildings shook 200 miles away in the capital, Tokyo. It was initially estimated to have a rating of 6.8., and the U.S. Geological Survey later registered it as a 7.2.
The 2006 Kuril Islands earthquake was an 8.3 magnitude earthquake that hit the Kuril Islands at 11:14 UTC (8:14pm JST) on November 15, 2006. A small tsunami hit the Japanese northern coast, with a larger wave following earlier small ones, due to reflection. The tsunami crossed the Pacific and did damage in the harbor at Crescent City, CA, USA. This earthquake was the largest earthquake having occurred in the central Kuril Islands since the earthquake in 1915 with an estimated magnitude of about 8. Post-tsunami surveys indicate that the local tsunami in the central Kuril Islands reached runup of 15 meters or more
The 2007 Kuril Islands earthquake was a great earthquake that occurred east of the Kuril Islands on January 13, 2007 at 1:23 p.m. JST (04:23 UTC) with a magnitude of 8.1 Mw. A tsunami warning was issued following the earthquake, and sea level gauges indicate that a tsunami was generated. The largest swells reported were 16 inches, which were recorded at Chichi-jima. The earthquake occurred as a result of normal faulting, and was located 95 km to the south east of the 8.3 magnitude event in November 2006.
At 9:42 a.m. on March 25, 2007, the Noto Peninsula Earthquake (能登半島地震, Noto hantō jishin?), a magnitude 6.9 earthquake, struck the Hokuriku region of Japan, near the Noto Peninsula. The earthquake shook the city of Nanao and the town of Anamizu with a seismic intensity of 6+ on Japan's shindo scale. One death, in the city of Wajima, and at least 214 injuries have been reported. A tsunami advisory was immediately made for the Kaga coast and Noto coast, and a 10-20 cm wave hit shore about 30 minutes later. The Japan Meteorological Agency placed the earthquake at 37.3°N, 136.5°E, at a depth of 50 km. It estimated the magnitude at 7.1, but later revised its estimate to 6.9
The Chūetsu Offshore Earthquake (Japanese: 平成19 年（2007 年）新潟県中越沖地震 ) was a powerful magnitude 6.6 earthquake that occurred 10:13 a.m. local time (01:13 UTC) on July 16, 2007, in the northwest Niigata region of Japan. The earthquake shook Niigata and neighbouring prefectures. The city of Kashiwazaki and the villages of Iizuna and Kariwa registered the highest seismic intensity of a strong 6 on Japan's shindo scale, but the quake was felt as far away as Tokyo. Eleven deaths and at least 1000 injuries were reported, and 342 buildings were completely destroyed, mostly older wooden structures
The 2008 Iwate earthquake on June 14, 2008 mainly struck mid Tōhoku region, northeastern Honshū, Japan. Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA) officially named this earthquake the Iwate-Miyagi Nairiku Earthquake in 2008. This earthquake occurred in the south of the inland of Iwate Prefecture at 8:43 JST on Saturday morning, June 14 (23:43 UTC on June 13). The JMA magnitude was estimated at Mj 7.2, and the moment magnitude by USGS was at Mw 6.9. The epicenter was located at 39°01.7′N 140°52.8′E / 39.0283°N 140.88°E / 39.0283; 140.88, about 85 kilometres (55 mi) north of Sendai and about 385 kilometres (240 mi) north-northeast of Toky
The 2009 Izu Islands earthquake occurred on August 9, 2009 at 19:55 local time (10:55 UTC) near the Izu Islands, off the south coast of Honshu. The epicenter was 170 km from Hamamatsu and 325 km from Tokyo. This was an intraplate earthquake within the Pacific Plate, which is subducting beneath the Philippine Sea Plate at the Izu-Bonin trench in this region. In Tokyo, the intensity reached shindo 4 (MM IV according to USGS). Due to its depth of 297 km, this earthquake did not cause any damage.
The 2010 Bonin Islands earthquake occurred on December 21, 2010 when a magnitude 7.4 earthquake struck off of the Bonin Islands, Japan. The quake occurred at about 0220 local time (1720 UTC), about 155 kilometres (96 mi) east of the Bonin Islands, at an depth of around 15 kilometres (9.3 mi). After the quake, the Japan Meteorological Agency issued a warning of a possible tsunami, capable of producing a wave of up to 2 metres (6.6 ft) high near the Bonin Islands, though milder for mainland Japan. Residents of the Bonin Islands were advised to move towards higher ground, and advisories were also issued for some provinces along Japan's Pacific coast. Around 40 minutes after the initial quake, wave swells of up to 30 centimetres (12 in) were seen on the coast of the main Japanese island, though no tsunami waves were seen from the island of Chichi-jima.
There were twenty-two M5.0+ aftershocks within six hours from the quake, including two with a magnitude of 5.6 that occurred at 1740 and 1741 UTC. By 27 December, 79 M5.0+ aftershocks had occurred.
The 2011 Tōhoku earthquake and tsunami (東北地方太平洋沖地震, Tōhoku Chihō Taiheiyō-oki Jishin?, literally "Tōhoku region Pacific Ocean offshore earthquake"[FN 1]) was a 9.0 MW megathrust earthquake off the coast of Japan that occurred at 14:46 JST (05:46 UTC) on Friday 11 March 2011. The epicenter was 130 kilometers (81 mi) off the east coast of the Oshika Peninsula of Tōhoku near Sendai, with the hypocenter at a depth of 32 km (19.9 mi).The earthquake triggered tsunami warnings and evacuations along Japan's Pacific coast and at least 20 other countries, including the entire Pacific coast of North America and South America. The earthquake created extremely destructive tsunami waves of up to 10 meters (33 ft) that struck Japan minutes after the quake, in some cases travelling up to 10 km (6 mi) inland, with smaller waves reaching many other countries after several hours.
A tsunami advisory has been issued for the Miyagi prefecture in Japan's northeast coastal region, following an earthquake with a preliminary magnitude of 6.5, the Japan Meteorological Agency said Monday morning.
"Tsunamis are expected to arrive imminently" in Miyagi prefecture, the agency said. No further details were immediately available.
The U.S. Geological Survey also said in a release that a 6.5 magnitude quake occurred at a depth of 5.9 kilometres near the east coast of Honshu, Japan's largest island.