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Originally posted by tothetenthpower
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Moving forward any posts that are proven to come from an outside source and do not have have the appropriate links will be immediately removed.
Biker spots trouble along the beaches, with new fears from Japan that local fishing could be impacted
Meanwhile, the bike rider reports “swirls of greasy sea water is washing up” this morning along this stretch of central Oregon coast beaches.
At the same time, locals have been treated to a clear blue horizon after evenings of disturbing flaming-orange and red sunsets that locals say are “not so much beautiful,” but “sort of scary because of what’s happening with the radiation in Japan.”
The Japanese public television featured new reports Saturday morning that Tokyo’s 13 million residents are under recent measurements of “ambient radiation of 0.22 microsieverts per hours. The Japanese Health Ministry stated that this is “six times normal for Tokyo.”
Also, the World Nuclear Association said it cannot predict where the radiation from Japan will eventually wind up because precise radiation detection both in and over the Pacific is “not possible at this time” due to wind and ocean currents that can change.
At the same time, nearly a half million Japanese people remain in shelters with no safe drinking water or food, while the air along Japan’s northeast coast is suspect of high levels of radiation drifting downwind toward the West coast of America, stated officials with the World Nuclear Association.
Here in Newport, a commercial fishing community, there’s “real compassion” for the Japanese fishing industry that is losing its industry to radiation killing fish off the coast.
In a Japanese TV interview, a fisherman in the Tsunami-bashed city of Kamaishi noted how his fellow fishermen lost their fishing equipment, boats and ships, docks and fishing infrastructure, while noting that “we will probably get out of the business.”
Japanese media is also reporting that the latest radiation scare in its waters have also “destroyed aqua farms for abalone, sea urchins, oysters, scallops and seaweed. In turn, officials say this loss accounts for “more than 80 percent of the revenue of the region's fisheries.”
Moreover, new radiation tests on Saturday showed “iodine 131 levels in seawater 30 km (19 miles) from the coastal nuclear complex had spiked 1,250 times higher than normal, but it was not considered a threat to marine life or food safety,” stated a news release from Japans Nuclear and Industrial Safety Agency...
...Newport and West coast dogs reported to be acting strange in the wake of the recent Tsunami
Oregon authorities have issued new strong warning to keep humans and pets away from all dead sea life found on any Oregon coast beach, “as they could become infected by a disease that’s hitting the population in this area.”
While radiation levels are viewed as safe right now along Oregon and other West coast beaches, there have been new warnings about a disease called “leptospirosis,” that more recently infected California sea lions with by the hundreds.
Officials said the disease can spread to humans and dogs who come in contact with an infected sea lion or other dead sea life that’s in mass after the recent quake in Japan triggered massive amounts of questionable debris along West coast beaches.
In the meantime, those who walk their dogs along coastal beaches have been warned about dogs reported to be ill with unknown causes; while, at the same time, other local pet owners fear their dogs – that sniff and eat various beach stuff that intrigues them while foraging around for bones and other objects – are possibly suffering the same fate at three nuclear power workers at Fukushima, Japan, who’ve been exposed to high levels of radiation, stated Japan’s nuclear safety agency on Saturday.
A schnauzer puppy named “buggers,” is now seriously ill, and several other Newport dogs who frequent the local beach are also said to be sick and acting crazy.
The problem is some of the beaches are still littered with decaying sea life, building bits and pieces -- thought to be from Japan’s recent quake that triggered massive Tsunami waves that hit Newport and other West coast beaches – are reported to be “very ill” by their owners who’ve queried local health officials about the safety of taking pets for their usual walks along the beach.
At the same time, local dog owners point to recent “crazy reactions” by their pets after returning to run on the Newport area beaches after almost two weeks of being kept off the coast due to recent Tsunami warnings and massive amounts of “questionable” debris that may be from Japan.
“They usually don’t act like this,” said one local dog owner with desperation in his voice. “It’s as if their whining about something not right around here.”
A ship that had “abnormal” amounts of radiation after passing 67 nautical miles (124 kilometers) off Japan’s Fukushima prefecture, site of a crippled nuclear-power station, was heading back to the country after being rejected by authorities in China.
The MOL Presence is due to arrive in Kobe on March 30 from Xiamen, according to AISLive Ltd. ship-tracking data on Bloomberg. A Xiamen port official, who declined to give their name in a telephone call today, confirmed that the vessel had left and declined to elaborate.
An inspection detected “abnormal” amounts of radiation on the deck and the surface of containers on the Mitsui O.S.K. Lines Ltd. vessel after it arrived in Xiamen on March 21, according to a March 25 notice on the website of the Xiamen Entry-Exit Inspection and Quarantine Bureau. There were normal levels in crew areas, it said.
In general, humans who catch a humanized influenza A virus (a human flu virus of type A) usually have symptoms that include fever, cough, sore throat, muscle aches, conjunctivitis, and, in severe cases, breathing problems and pneumonia that may be fatal.[...]No one knows if these or other symptoms will be the symptoms of a humanized H5N1 flu.
In one case, a boy with H5N1 experienced diarrhea followed rapidly by a coma without developing respiratory or flu-like symptoms.
Gastrointestinal. This syndrome typically occurs at exposure doses of 600–1000 rad (6–10 Gy). Nausea, vomiting, loss of appetite, and abdominal pain are usually seen within one to two hours.
3. Neurovascular. This syndrome typically occurs at exposure doses greater than 1000 rad (10 Gy). It presents with neurological symptoms such as dizziness, headache, or decreased level of consciousness with an absence of vomiting.
The prodrome associated with ARS typically includes nausea and vomiting, headaches, fatigue, fever and short period of skin reddening. These symptoms may occur at radiation doses as low as 35 rad (0.35 Gy) and thus may not be followed by acute radiation sickness.
Concerns about radiation in Japan have now spread to the soil surrounding the crippled Fukushima Daiichi nuclear reactor. One level that was reported this week was high enough to suggest people in that area should be evacuated, an expert says. But he cautions that it's hard to draw conclusions about these spot measurements without more data.
Today, Japanese officials told the population living up to 30 kilometers from the plant that they should consider leaving the area, expanding the previous 20-kilometer radius evacuation zone. But according to news reports, the advice stems from difficulties in supplying the region with food and water, not radiation levels. Meanwhile, on Wednesday the Japanese science ministry began to report measurements of cesium-137 in upland soil around the plant. The levels are highest from two points northeast of the plant, ranging from 8690 becquerels/kilogram to a high of 163,000 Bq/kg measured on 20 March from a point in Iitate about 40 kilometers northwest of the Fukushima plant.
The soil measurements are more significant for evacuation purposes than radioactivity in the air, says nuclear engineer Shih-Yew Chen of Argonne National Laboratory in Illinois, because cesium dust stays underfoot while air is transient. Levels of cesium-137 are also more important than soil readings of iodine-131, which is short-lived and more of a concern in milk and vegetables. "It's the cesium that would prompt an evacuation," says Chen.
Japan Radiation Map Roundup
If you want to know what's going on, ask the nerds. As fears swelled over radiation from Japan's battered Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant in the days after the 11 March quake, computer-savvy individuals around the globe had an immediate reaction: show people the data. Within days, individuals began tracking down and using the data to create interactive maps and graphs of radiation levels in Japan. Here are some that have stood out as especially useful. Their sources include government monitoring stations and Geiger counters duct-taped to the balconies of Tokyo apartments, and vary in completeness and in how frequently they're updated. Neither Science nor the creators guarantee these maps' accuracy; they are meant to supplement, not replace, official formats of releasing data. These maps are works in progress, and new ones are coming online every day. If a map has caught your eye, if you're developing your own, or if you're a scientist and have found visualizations like these to be helpful, send us an email, or leave a comment below. We'll add them to this page, so check back again.
Marian Steinbach, a user-interface designer based in Cologne, Germany, noticed something decidedly user-unfriendly about media reports on Japan's nuclear crisis. "I was looking for a big picture of the situation of radiation in Japan, which I couldn't find," he says. So he started manually grabbing radiation readings from Japan's sensor network, known as SPEEDI, which is released every 10 minutes by the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology (MEXT). He put them in a format that developers could work with. Soon volunteers from around the world joined in to keep the data flowing—and translate data posted only in Japanese—until Steinbach could write a computer script to automatically "scrape" the data from the site and dump them into a readable file at intervals. Still missing, however, are continuous readings from Miyagi and Fukushima prefectures, which were hard-hit by the earthquake. MEXT is publishing readings from the latter a few times a day as a PDF that Steinbach hasn't been able to scrape—yet. Nevertheless, Steinbach's data have become a source for a growing number of maps and visualizations. "Fortunately, I have a flat fee on bandwidth," he says.
One spinoff is Norwegian software engineer Geir Engdahl's map, which displays SPEEDI sensor locations and their readings in nanoGrays per hour. (Grays are a way of measuring radiation that looks purely at the energy deposited in tissue, known as the absorbed dose.) Click on a bubble—which are color coded by magnitude—to see the most recent reading. You can also track that station's reading over the past 24 hours, week, or month to look for spikes or to compare readings before and after the earthquake:
Originally posted by TheRedneck
reply to post by DancedWithWolves
They are refusing independent testing as well. At what point is a company not allowed to refuse?
Apparently when independent testing shows apathetic, genocidal agendas.
Again, Tokyo should be evacuated, immediately. Do not remain in Tokyo. Things can change with the change of the winds, and it will not get better for a long long time.
Originally posted by PresumedInnocent
reply to post by Chakotay
So any bets as to when the Emperor address the nation again.
8.53am (5.53pm JST): Above is a TV screengrab, via Reuters, of Emperor Akihito's address to the nation. Here's also a couple more quotes from the 77-year-old who, let's remember, is by tradition a more remote and detached figure than most heads of states, even compared to his fellow monarchs
10.46am (7.46pm JST): France has urged its nationals in Tokyo to leave the country, or at least head towards southern Japan.
This is a significant development: the first time a nation has explicitly said it does not believe Japanese reassurances about the safety of the Fukushima plant, about 150 miles from the capital. The comments by French ministers are very strong.
The industry minister, Eric Besson, told BFM television:
Let's not beat about the bush. They have visibly lost the essential of control (of the situation). That is our analysis, in any case, it's not what they are saying.
The environment minister, Nathalie Kosciusko-Morizet, said the latest news about the nuclear situation "does not lead to optimism":
We recommend that all French citizens who do not have a good reason to stay in Tokyo either take a plane or, if they absolutely insist on staying, head south.
While this is not an official evacuation order, Air France has already increased capacity on its Tokyo to Paris services.
Originally posted by JustMike
reply to post by TheRedneck
Thanks for clarifying that. I appreciate it. A few weeks ago I never dreamed I'd be brushing up on the nuclear physics I learned in school back in the ... errrmm... back before Lynyrd Skynyrd's Sweet Home Alabama hit the top ten...
There another point I'd be glad for you to clear up, in case I'm wrong on this one as well. In the bottom left of that graphic in my previous post it says:
"Half-life: The time it takes a substance to lose half its radioactivity."
According to that definition, Plutonium-239, for example, is only half as radioactive as it originally was after its half-life period.
This confuses me because I thought that "half-life" was the time it took for half of any given quantity of a radioactive substance to reach the "end of its life" as that substance and become something else by the process of radioactive decay. In other words, the half that remains as the original substance is still just as radioactive as it was before.
Maybe I'm being very picky but I feel this is important. What I mean is, in the case of a highly toxic substance like Plutonium-239, as its half-life is about 24,000 years I thought it meant that after that time, roughly half of the original Pu-239 would remain but still be just as toxic as it was. (The other half has decayed and is no longer Pu-239.) After 48,000 years from day 1 of its creation, one-quarter of the original Pu-239 would remain (as Pu-239), but it would still be just as toxic as it was at the start.
I'm concerned about this because even in the case of substances with much shorter half-lives -- say only a matter of days or weeks -- I understood that whatever has not decayed after one half-life period is still the same in terms of radioactivity and possible toxicity. Their definition says different.
Am I right, or is the WP definition correct and I've got it wrong (again )?
Originally posted by Kailassa
Originally posted by Analyze76
According to what I understood iodine-131 was supposed to have dissipated within 8 days. (what did they mean "half-life" of 8 days?)
The half life is the time it takes for half the substance to break down into another, (usually safer) substance.
Imagine we're talking about oranges having a half-life of 1 year, and breaking down into lemons.
If we start with a thousand oranges, after 1 year we'll have 500 oranges and 500 lemons.
After 2 years well have 250 oranges and 750 lemons.
After 3 years we have 125 oranges and 875 lemons.
After 10 years we have 1 orange and 999 lemons.
- This is assuming the lemons don't also break down. IRL they are also likely to be breaking down into other substances.
Originally posted by Kailassa
The substance loses it's radioactivity because it's unstable and breaks down to a less radioactive substance. This breakdown is what causes radioactivity. Radioactivity the energy released from this breakdown.
The parent can break down to a daughter which is a different isotope, or to a daughter which is a completely different element. Either way, a new substance has been formed.
The decay, or loss of energy, results when an atom with one type of nucleus, called the parent radionuclide, transforms to an atom with a nucleus in a different state, or a different nucleus, either of which is named the daughter nuclide. Often the parent and daughter are different chemical elements, and in such cases the decay process results in nuclear transmutation. In an example of this, a carbon-14 atom (the "parent") emits radiation (a beta particle, antineutrino, and a gamma ray) and transforms to a nitrogen-14 atom (the "daughter"). By contrast, there exist two types of radioactive decay processes (gamma decay and internal conversion decay) that do not result in transmutation, but only decrease the energy of an excited nucleus. This results in an atom of the same element as before but with a nucleus in a lower energy state. An example is the nuclear isomer technetium-99m decaying, by the emission of a gamma ray, to an atom of technetium-99.
Originally posted by Kailassa
The half-life of any substance is the time in which half of that substance transmutes into another substance.
This may be a different element, a different isotope of the same element, or the ground form of the element.
The energy given off by the decay into a daughter substance is the energy that is radiation.
Half-life is the time it takes for such transmutation to occur.
Half Life and Radioactive DecayHalf Life and Radioactive Decay
Transmutation describes a process by which the nucleus of a radioactive atom undergoes decay into an atom with a different number of protons, until such time as a stable nucleus is produced.
An alpha particle (i.e., a helium nucleus) is released during alpha decay of a radioactive substance. An element with a lower mass is formed. Mass is not conserved. Atomic mass number (or nucleon number, or baryon number) is conserved.
Beta decay (beta negative decay) occurs when a beta (negative) particle is released from the nucleus (i.e., electron). Mass is also not conserved in beta decay. Nucleon number is conserved. In beta decay, the beta particle released originated in the nucleus of the atom, not in the electron orbital. A neutron is lost, and in its place a proton and an electron are formed.
Gamma decay is the release of excess stored energy from the nucleus. No transmutation occurs. However, gamma decay often accompanies alpha and beta negative decay in a decay series. (The series of steps in the transmutations occurring until a stable nucleus results, is called a decay series.) Gamma decay occurs when an excited nucleus (excited by photon or particle bombardment, or it may be a decay product in an excited state) returns to the ground state. An excited nucleus is heavier than the ground state, by a mass equal to the mass/energy equivalent of the energy of the emitted gamma ray.
Each radioactive nuclide emits radioactivity at its characteristic rate, different from that of other nuclides. The rate of radioactive decay is related to the energy change that accompanies the transformation, but it is not a direct relationship. The rate of radioactive emissions of a radioactive nuclide is directly proportional to the amount of radioactive material present. The rate of decay of a radioactive nuclide is measured by its half-life. Half-life is the time required for one half of the atoms in any starting sample of a radioisotope to decay.
"Half-life is the time required for one half of the atoms in any starting sample of a radioisotope to decay."
Transformation describes that decay.
Originally posted by Kailassa
Originally posted by 00nunya00
reply to post by Kailassa
And since you're dependent on Wikipedia, here
Half-life is the period of time it takes for a substance undergoing decay to decrease by half.
As your quote says, Half-life is the period of time it takes for a substance undergoing decay to decrease by half.
The substance decreases by half because half of it changes to another substance!
Did you think matter or energy simply disappear?
Nothing just disappears in this world. Things can move, things can change, but matter+energy is a constant, as any basic physics text will tell you. Half life is not about substances disappearing. It's about entropy causing a substance in a higher energy state to change into a substance in a lower energy state. This is done by releasing energy, and that energy is radiation. After the energy is released, what's left of the substance the energy was released from is a new substance. It can be a new element, a new isotope or the ground state of the original isotope, depending on what the initial substance was.
For example, carbon-14 atom (the "parent") emits radiation (a beta particle, antineutrino, and a gamma ray) and transforms to a nitrogen-14 atom (the "daughter"). Technetium-99m decays by the emission of a gamma ray, to an atom of technetium-99.
Just as I illustrated by talking of the half-life of oranges leaving half, over that period of time, turning into lemons, the half lives of the various plutonium isotopes mean that in that time half turns into uranium or americium isotopes, depending on the initial isotope of plutonium.
Decay modes of plutonium isotopes
Another example is strontium 90, a product of nuclear fission, which has a half life of 28.8 years. 90Sr undergoes β− decay with decay energy of 0.546 MeV to an electron and the yttrium isotope 90Y, which in turn undergoes β− decay with half life of 64 hours and decay energy 2.28 MeV for beta particles to an electron and 90Zr (zirconium), which is stable.
It's just like a staircase. Some isotopes are sitting higher up the staircase than others. They keep "shaking" so now and then one tumbles down to the stair below. Falling down happens because of energy release, so the fallen isotope has less energy, and thus is a different chemical. So you can label the stairs with what the chemical will be when it lands on each one. It's all about the relationship between matter and energy.
One question is: where did this radiation come from? Most of it was in the form of iodine-134 (with a half-life of 53 minutes) and iodine-131 (with a half life of 8 days). This indicates that the radiation came directly from the core at Unit 2, rather than the spent fuel pond (where most of the iodine has already decayed). So there seems to be a direct path way from the core to the outside, meaning a breach of containment, similar to the situation in Unit 3. In other words, there could be a crack in the pressure vessel surrounding the super hot uranium core, as well as a crack in the outer primary containment vessel surrounding the pressure vessel. These cracks may allow radiation to escape from the core directly into the environment.
A - Computer monitors are blank.
B - Clock out of service.
C - Annunciators seem to be de-energized: no alarms reported despite many plant parameters off-normal.
D - Equipment status indicator lights not available.
E - Instrument gauges all downscale (not reading parameter values).
Shogo Fukuda, a TEPCO spokesman, said that 8.6 was the maximum magnitude entered into the TEPCO internal computer modeling for Fukushima Dai-ichi.
Another TEPCO spokesman, Motoyasu Tamaki, used a new buzzword, "sotegai," or "outside our imagination," to describe what actually occurred.
As the worst atomic accident since Chernobyl entered its third week, the government said soil near the Fukushima plant would be tested for plutonium contamination. The radioactive metal was used in one of the reactors and its presence outside the plant would suggest the fuel rods were damaged. www.sify.com...
In unit 2 doses from the water's surface are 1000 millisieverts per hour, in unit 3 this is 750 millisieverts per hour while unit 1 shows 60 millisieverts per hour.