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Japan declares 'nuclear emergency' after quake

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posted on Mar, 27 2011 @ 01:25 PM
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I have just seen on tv a report on fukushima.
They showed some aereal pictures of the fukushima site taken from an helicopter at sea.

The flow of water coming out from the sewage is incredibly high, it's like a river....
edit on 27-3-2011 by monica86 because: (no reason given)




posted on Mar, 27 2011 @ 01:27 PM
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reply to post by monica86
 


Tide heading back out to sea from UNDER the plants.....

There is no longer any option in burying them under concrete. They have been undermined already, by mother nature.
edit on 27-3-2011 by Destinyone because: (no reason given)



posted on Mar, 27 2011 @ 01:31 PM
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A Gentle Reminder:


Originally posted by tothetenthpower
***ATTENTION***

The staff have noticed that there has been an increase in posts, specifically updates about the events in Japan that are going un-sourced.

It is not ok to copy/paste from breaking news, twitter or any other source without providing a link to that source.

Please review the following links:

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Moving forward any posts that are proven to come from an outside source and do not have have the appropriate links will be immediately removed.

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posted on Mar, 27 2011 @ 01:33 PM
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No idea how to embed this helicopter video of the plant from March 27th.

Anybody?

I found the link where the video is hosted. You can make it full screen.
peevee.tv...

There appears to be snapshots images from it here.




















edit on 3/27/11 by makeitso because: (no reason given)



posted on Mar, 27 2011 @ 01:34 PM
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Biker spots trouble along the beaches, with new fears from Japan that local fishing could be impacted

Meanwhile, the bike rider reports “swirls of greasy sea water is washing up” this morning along this stretch of central Oregon coast beaches.

At the same time, locals have been treated to a clear blue horizon after evenings of disturbing flaming-orange and red sunsets that locals say are “not so much beautiful,” but “sort of scary because of what’s happening with the radiation in Japan.”

The Japanese public television featured new reports Saturday morning that Tokyo’s 13 million residents are under recent measurements of “ambient radiation of 0.22 microsieverts per hours. The Japanese Health Ministry stated that this is “six times normal for Tokyo.”

Also, the World Nuclear Association said it cannot predict where the radiation from Japan will eventually wind up because precise radiation detection both in and over the Pacific is “not possible at this time” due to wind and ocean currents that can change.

At the same time, nearly a half million Japanese people remain in shelters with no safe drinking water or food, while the air along Japan’s northeast coast is suspect of high levels of radiation drifting downwind toward the West coast of America, stated officials with the World Nuclear Association.

Here in Newport, a commercial fishing community, there’s “real compassion” for the Japanese fishing industry that is losing its industry to radiation killing fish off the coast.

In a Japanese TV interview, a fisherman in the Tsunami-bashed city of Kamaishi noted how his fellow fishermen lost their fishing equipment, boats and ships, docks and fishing infrastructure, while noting that “we will probably get out of the business.”

Japanese media is also reporting that the latest radiation scare in its waters have also “destroyed aqua farms for abalone, sea urchins, oysters, scallops and seaweed. In turn, officials say this loss accounts for “more than 80 percent of the revenue of the region's fisheries.”

Moreover, new radiation tests on Saturday showed “iodine 131 levels in seawater 30 km (19 miles) from the coastal nuclear complex had spiked 1,250 times higher than normal, but it was not considered a threat to marine life or food safety,” stated a news release from Japans Nuclear and Industrial Safety Agency...

...Newport and West coast dogs reported to be acting strange in the wake of the recent Tsunami

Oregon authorities have issued new strong warning to keep humans and pets away from all dead sea life found on any Oregon coast beach, “as they could become infected by a disease that’s hitting the population in this area.”

While radiation levels are viewed as safe right now along Oregon and other West coast beaches, there have been new warnings about a disease called “leptospirosis,” that more recently infected California sea lions with by the hundreds.

Officials said the disease can spread to humans and dogs who come in contact with an infected sea lion or other dead sea life that’s in mass after the recent quake in Japan triggered massive amounts of questionable debris along West coast beaches.

In the meantime, those who walk their dogs along coastal beaches have been warned about dogs reported to be ill with unknown causes; while, at the same time, other local pet owners fear their dogs – that sniff and eat various beach stuff that intrigues them while foraging around for bones and other objects – are possibly suffering the same fate at three nuclear power workers at Fukushima, Japan, who’ve been exposed to high levels of radiation, stated Japan’s nuclear safety agency on Saturday.

A schnauzer puppy named “buggers,” is now seriously ill, and several other Newport dogs who frequent the local beach are also said to be sick and acting crazy.

The problem is some of the beaches are still littered with decaying sea life, building bits and pieces -- thought to be from Japan’s recent quake that triggered massive Tsunami waves that hit Newport and other West coast beaches – are reported to be “very ill” by their owners who’ve queried local health officials about the safety of taking pets for their usual walks along the beach.

At the same time, local dog owners point to recent “crazy reactions” by their pets after returning to run on the Newport area beaches after almost two weeks of being kept off the coast due to recent Tsunami warnings and massive amounts of “questionable” debris that may be from Japan.

“They usually don’t act like this,” said one local dog owner with desperation in his voice. “It’s as if their whining about something not right around here.”


www.huliq.com... ing-sea-life-warning-oregon-coast-fishing-industry

Soon things will be too obvious to hide or downplay anymore.

Want to start a pool on when they finally confess the true extent of the disaster?



posted on Mar, 27 2011 @ 01:41 PM
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.Ship Rejected in China Port on ‘Abnormal’ Radiation Heading Back to Japan


A ship that had “abnormal” amounts of radiation after passing 67 nautical miles (124 kilometers) off Japan’s Fukushima prefecture, site of a crippled nuclear-power station, was heading back to the country after being rejected by authorities in China.

The MOL Presence is due to arrive in Kobe on March 30 from Xiamen, according to AISLive Ltd. ship-tracking data on Bloomberg. A Xiamen port official, who declined to give their name in a telephone call today, confirmed that the vessel had left and declined to elaborate.

An inspection detected “abnormal” amounts of radiation on the deck and the surface of containers on the Mitsui O.S.K. Lines Ltd. vessel after it arrived in Xiamen on March 21, according to a March 25 notice on the website of the Xiamen Entry-Exit Inspection and Quarantine Bureau. There were normal levels in crew areas, it said.

www.bloomberg.com...



posted on Mar, 27 2011 @ 01:57 PM
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Possible symptoms of H5N1

In general, humans who catch a humanized influenza A virus (a human flu virus of type A) usually have symptoms that include fever, cough, sore throat, muscle aches, conjunctivitis, and, in severe cases, breathing problems and pneumonia that may be fatal.[...]No one knows if these or other symptoms will be the symptoms of a humanized H5N1 flu.

In one case, a boy with H5N1 experienced diarrhea followed rapidly by a coma without developing respiratory or flu-like symptoms.


Perfect, an unknowable set of symptoms for this already-present disease which could be mistakenly (or, more likely, intentionally) blamed for what is really.....

Radiation sickness

Gastrointestinal. This syndrome typically occurs at exposure doses of 600–1000 rad (6–10 Gy).[1] Nausea, vomiting, loss of appetite, and abdominal pain are usually seen within one to two hours.[1]

3. Neurovascular. This syndrome typically occurs at exposure doses greater than 1000 rad (10 Gy).[1] It presents with neurological symptoms such as dizziness, headache, or decreased level of consciousness with an absence of vomiting.[1]

The prodrome associated with ARS typically includes nausea and vomiting, headaches, fatigue, fever and short period of skin reddening.[1] These symptoms may occur at radiation doses as low as 35 rad (0.35 Gy) and thus may not be followed by acute radiation sickness.



posted on Mar, 27 2011 @ 02:01 PM
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Concerns about radiation in Japan have now spread to the soil surrounding the crippled Fukushima Daiichi nuclear reactor. One level that was reported this week was high enough to suggest people in that area should be evacuated, an expert says. But he cautions that it's hard to draw conclusions about these spot measurements without more data.

Today, Japanese officials told the population living up to 30 kilometers from the plant that they should consider leaving the area, expanding the previous 20-kilometer radius evacuation zone. But according to news reports, the advice stems from difficulties in supplying the region with food and water, not radiation levels. Meanwhile, on Wednesday the Japanese science ministry began to report measurements of cesium-137 in upland soil around the plant. The levels are highest from two points northeast of the plant, ranging from 8690 becquerels/kilogram to a high of 163,000 Bq/kg measured on 20 March from a point in Iitate about 40 kilometers northwest of the Fukushima plant.

The soil measurements are more significant for evacuation purposes than radioactivity in the air, says nuclear engineer Shih-Yew Chen of Argonne National Laboratory in Illinois, because cesium dust stays underfoot while air is transient. Levels of cesium-137 are also more important than soil readings of iodine-131, which is short-lived and more of a concern in milk and vegetables. "It's the cesium that would prompt an evacuation," says Chen.



Japan Radiation Map Roundup

If you want to know what's going on, ask the nerds. As fears swelled over radiation from Japan's battered Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant in the days after the 11 March quake, computer-savvy individuals around the globe had an immediate reaction: show people the data. Within days, individuals began tracking down and using the data to create interactive maps and graphs of radiation levels in Japan. Here are some that have stood out as especially useful. Their sources include government monitoring stations and Geiger counters duct-taped to the balconies of Tokyo apartments, and vary in completeness and in how frequently they're updated. Neither Science nor the creators guarantee these maps' accuracy; they are meant to supplement, not replace, official formats of releasing data. These maps are works in progress, and new ones are coming online every day. If a map has caught your eye, if you're developing your own, or if you're a scientist and have found visualizations like these to be helpful, send us an email, or leave a comment below. We'll add them to this page, so check back again.

Marian Steinbach, a user-interface designer based in Cologne, Germany, noticed something decidedly user-unfriendly about media reports on Japan's nuclear crisis. "I was looking for a big picture of the situation of radiation in Japan, which I couldn't find," he says. So he started manually grabbing radiation readings from Japan's sensor network, known as SPEEDI, which is released every 10 minutes by the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology (MEXT). He put them in a format that developers could work with. Soon volunteers from around the world joined in to keep the data flowing—and translate data posted only in Japanese—until Steinbach could write a computer script to automatically "scrape" the data from the site and dump them into a readable file at intervals. Still missing, however, are continuous readings from Miyagi and Fukushima prefectures, which were hard-hit by the earthquake. MEXT is publishing readings from the latter a few times a day as a PDF that Steinbach hasn't been able to scrape—yet. Nevertheless, Steinbach's data have become a source for a growing number of maps and visualizations. "Fortunately, I have a flat fee on bandwidth," he says.

One spinoff is Norwegian software engineer Geir Engdahl's map, which displays SPEEDI sensor locations and their readings in nanoGrays per hour. (Grays are a way of measuring radiation that looks purely at the energy deposited in tissue, known as the absorbed dose.) Click on a bubble—which are color coded by magnitude—to see the most recent reading. You can also track that station's reading over the past 24 hours, week, or month to look for spikes or to compare readings before and after the earthquake:



news.sciencemag.org... /03/japan-soil-measurements-surprisingly.html?ref=hp

realtime radiation map links:


news.sciencemag.org... n-radiation-map-resource.html?ref=hp

gebweb.net...

www.rdtn.org...

www.pachube.com...

Apologies if these have been posted already



posted on Mar, 27 2011 @ 02:03 PM
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Has Alex Jones had his say on this fiasco, i would love to hear what he has to say about it as he does tend to get to the core of things.and he can meltdown as well.



posted on Mar, 27 2011 @ 02:09 PM
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Originally posted by TheRedneck
reply to post by DancedWithWolves

They are refusing independent testing as well. At what point is a company not allowed to refuse?

Apparently when independent testing shows apathetic, genocidal agendas.

Again, Tokyo should be evacuated, immediately. Do not remain in Tokyo. Things can change with the change of the winds, and it will not get better for a long long time.

TheRedneck


Back on page 311 of this Thread, I wondered if the Japanese government had been quietly engaged in an effort to prepare an "orderly" evacuation of Tokyo.

I based this supposition on reports that certain roads, accessable only by the military and government just after the quake, had been recently re-opened to the public: specifically, routes leading to northern Japan, and to, I beleive it was, Narita airport.

I understand, that at the time I posed this question, it appeared that there was not sufficient threat posed by the reactors at Fukushima to justify the logistical and psychological nightmare that an evacuation on such a scale would entail.

It would seem that things have skewed toward the worse.


So, again, I am wondering if there have been any, observeable, actions by the government that Might indicate that the Japanese "officialdom" does, indeed, understand the dire severity of the situation, and is NOT willing to let the 30-odd million inhabitants of Tokyo play "Russian Roulette" with wind-borne radiation from Fukushima.


Could the Japanese government Really think it is better to "Save Face" by keeping everyone in place until the last, possibly too late, second? Knowing thatthe resultant, inescapable, panic will likely result in many unnecessary deaths.


Or have plans been made, in keeping with the belief that "To rush is Undignified", and we are simply waiting for the final word to impliment the plans that have been made?


I am reminded that, not long after the quake, a US Navy Captain appeared on a You-Tube posting, explaining the the procedure military families were to follow to comply with a "Voluntary" evacution order.

As I recall, he said arrangements had been made to allow something like 10,000 people per day to be flown out of Japan from just one airport.


Could he have been talking about more than just US military families?



posted on Mar, 27 2011 @ 02:22 PM
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Breaking: Just Released Video Footage by TEPCO

First video shot from a helicopter released by TEPCO showing damage to the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant.

Shot on March 16, 2011


Gets good at about 25 seconds in...



www.youtube.com...



posted on Mar, 27 2011 @ 02:23 PM
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Originally posted by PresumedInnocent
reply to post by Chakotay
 

So any bets as to when the Emperor address the nation again.

I edited your post down to just this part as it's the thing I actually want to address.


Your question is one I've been asking myself in various ways for some days now, because the first address to the nation by the Emperor seemed to precipitate some quite dramatic responses rather quickly. For example, another member has pointed out that it was the French who were the first to advise their nationals to leave Japan, and it's true: they made that announcement just two hours after the Emperor's speech was televised. His speech aired at 5:53 pm (Japan time) and the French announcement came at 7:46 pm, as shown in these timeline excerpts from The Guardian (UK) on March 16 (Note: I've not included the ''screengrab''.):


8.53am (5.53pm JST): Above is a TV screengrab, via Reuters, of Emperor Akihito's address to the nation. Here's also a couple more quotes from the 77-year-old who, let's remember, is by tradition a more remote and detached figure than most heads of states, even compared to his fellow monarchs


and:


10.46am (7.46pm JST): France has urged its nationals in Tokyo to leave the country, or at least head towards southern Japan.

This is a significant development: the first time a nation has explicitly said it does not believe Japanese reassurances about the safety of the Fukushima plant, about 150 miles from the capital. The comments by French ministers are very strong.

The industry minister, Eric Besson, told BFM television:

Let's not beat about the bush. They have visibly lost the essential of control (of the situation). That is our analysis, in any case, it's not what they are saying.

The environment minister, Nathalie Kosciusko-Morizet, said the latest news about the nuclear situation "does not lead to optimism":

We recommend that all French citizens who do not have a good reason to stay in Tokyo either take a plane or, if they absolutely insist on staying, head south.

While this is not an official evacuation order, Air France has already increased capacity on its Tokyo to Paris services.

(Bolding and underlining mine.)

I find the French officials' ''analysis'' and the follow-on recommendation for its citizens to leave ''or head south'' very significant, especially as it followed on so quickly from the Emperor's message. The officials did not believe what ''they'' (Japanese officials) were saying, but clearly, they did believe exactly what the Emperor was saying.

As I said in a few posts some days ago, the Emperor gave very clear warnings. True, they might have been missed by many westerners, but not by those Embassy staff in Japan. The French were just the first to react; others have since followed suit.

Bear in mind that this was eleven days ago, and nothing we have seen since then indicates the situation has improved. Far from it!

So -- to your question: when will the Emperor speak again?

I'd like to rephrase it a little: if the Emperor publicly acts again (as he has already done so twice), in what way will he act?

If and only if the Emperor feels compelled to publicly act again in relation to the Fukushima crisis, here are the options that I see as possible:

1 ) The Emperor might choose to make another gesture by way of ''gifts''. Technically, the Imperial House can neither receive property or give gifts unless this is authorized by the Diet. (Article 8 of the Constitution of Japan.) However, while I don't recall the Diet authorizing the Emperor's recent and highly symbolic gift of food from his ''ranch'' to Fukushima evacuees, I doubt that anyone is going to raise this matter as a point of protest in the Diet! In any case, Article 8 does not say that the Diet has to give authorization in advance, only that it must authorize such an act. Theoretically they can do it any time.

If the Emperor makes more gifts, their exact significance will depend both on their nature and to whom they are given. It's impossible to look deeper into this unless such a thing happens, beyond saying that if it does, it will be both symbolic and highly relevant to whatever is happening at the time the gifts are given.

2 ) The Emperor might choose to make accommodation available to refugees/evacuees. The Imperial House has properties, but they are in fact owned by the State. (Article 88 of the Constitution.) Therefore, it is quite possible that the Emperor might decide to allow these properties to be used by citizens in need, because technically, it is the People who own them anyway. In this case, it would not be a ''gift'' so Article 8 would not apply.

Again, if the Emperor makes property/accommodation available to people in need, the key points would be where the properties are, and to whom they are made available. Any reason given will only be ''surface'' and the true reason may be something else entirely.

3 ) The Emperor might choose to make another speech. This can happen quite independently of the foregoing options. Any one does not imply any of the others have to follow. However, if the Emperor makes another speech, it's crucial to bear the following points in mind.

a ) Unless the matter is of the utmost urgency, where even minutes may make a difference, the Emperor will not begin the speech by referring to the main point he wishes to make. Just as he did before (on March 16), the Emperor will begin by making statements that are current and relevant, but also formalized and completely expected. This is the norm.

b ) Aside from the very first proviso I've given in ( a ), the main point of his speech -- the motivating force behind him actually making it -- will come later. We will probably need to listen very carefully to even catch the moment where the Emperor reaches the key point/subject in his speech. Considering the circumstances, it is likely that the Fukushima situation will be the main subject, but do not be surprised if he does not mention it by name when introducing this matter. If he does, then that will be deeply significant because last time, he didn't.

Just a side note here: with any important personage, it's not only necessary to look for the layers of meaning in what they say or do now, but compare to what they said or did before. Look for changes or shifts in language or action. It's not enough to just consider the event in isolation. For example, the Emperor's gift of food was far more significant because in his earlier speech, he had specifically said that all Japanese people will work together and help each other. Aside from other matters, this gift related directly back to that point in his speech and it was a reminder that all means all.

c ) Once the Emperor has got to the main point, do not only listen for the basic details of his concerns, but take note of any modifiers: words that express his degree of concern. In the last speech, he used ''deeply concerned'' in reference to the ''nuclear situation''. If in this hypothetical next speech the Emperor uses, for example, ''very deeply concerned'', or (even worse) ''gravely concerned'', then he is definitely giving out a very strong warning. If he says ''we must act quickly'', then that is not as serious as if he says ''we must act very quickly'' or (worst!), he uses ''with all possible speed'' or similar.

I'll leave things there. Anything further is so far into the realms of conjecture that I'd rather not get into it. All I've tried to do in this post is rough out some possibilities and what to look for. But please, one final point: I would beg all of you to look beyond the mere value of any further gifts or offers the Emperor might make. Please, don't mock them. To Japanese people, their symbolic importance is far, far greater than physical quantity or monetary value.

I can tell you this much with absolute assurance: those eggs he gave a few days ago were more carefully handled and better prepared as meals than any other eggs in Japan.

And there would be people who wept as they ate them. Truly. Because they know what this gift really meant and they will never, ever forget it. I doubt that the eggshells were even thrown away. People would wash them carefully and dry them on tissue paper, then keep them in lacquer boxes to be handed on as heirlooms for centuries to come. This was not just a gift, it was a historic gesture from the 125th Emperor of Japan to his suffering people.

In relation to this nuclear crisis, if the Emperor makes any public gesture at all -- whatever it is -- it will be significant and will tell us a great deal about what is really happening. Just as his speech and his gifts did.

There is no-one more Japanese than the Emperor, and whatever he chooses to do will be because of his love for Japan, its people, and because honor means more than anything. There will be Truth in his actions. We just need to discern that Truth.

Best regards,

Mike
edit on 27/3/11 by JustMike because: I found a typo....



posted on Mar, 27 2011 @ 02:24 PM
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Originally posted by JustMike
reply to post by TheRedneck
 

Thanks for clarifying that. I appreciate it.
A few weeks ago I never dreamed I'd be brushing up on the nuclear physics I learned in school back in the ... errrmm... back before Lynyrd Skynyrd's Sweet Home Alabama hit the top ten...

There another point I'd be glad for you to clear up, in case I'm wrong on this one as well. In the bottom left of that graphic in my previous post it says:
"Half-life: The time it takes a substance to lose half its radioactivity."

According to that definition, Plutonium-239, for example, is only half as radioactive as it originally was after its half-life period.

This confuses me because I thought that "half-life" was the time it took for half of any given quantity of a radioactive substance to reach the "end of its life" as that substance and become something else by the process of radioactive decay. In other words, the half that remains as the original substance is still just as radioactive as it was before.

Maybe I'm being very picky but I feel this is important. What I mean is, in the case of a highly toxic substance like Plutonium-239, as its half-life is about 24,000 years I thought it meant that after that time, roughly half of the original Pu-239 would remain but still be just as toxic as it was. (The other half has decayed and is no longer Pu-239.) After 48,000 years from day 1 of its creation, one-quarter of the original Pu-239 would remain (as Pu-239), but it would still be just as toxic as it was at the start.

I'm concerned about this because even in the case of substances with much shorter half-lives -- say only a matter of days or weeks -- I understood that whatever has not decayed after one half-life period is still the same in terms of radioactivity and possible toxicity. Their definition says different.

Am I right, or is the WP definition correct and I've got it wrong (again
)?

You are quite right.

I explained this, (in a highly simplified manner,) in another thread:


Originally posted by Kailassa

Originally posted by Analyze76
According to what I understood iodine-131 was supposed to have dissipated within 8 days. (what did they mean "half-life" of 8 days?)

The half life is the time it takes for half the substance to break down into another, (usually safer) substance.

Imagine we're talking about oranges having a half-life of 1 year, and breaking down into lemons.

If we start with a thousand oranges, after 1 year we'll have 500 oranges and 500 lemons.
After 2 years well have 250 oranges and 750 lemons.
After 3 years we have 125 oranges and 875 lemons.
After 10 years we have 1 orange and 999 lemons.

- This is assuming the lemons don't also break down. IRL they are also likely to be breaking down into other substances.


And to explain it in more depth, (bringing edited posts here to avoid confusion created by an irritated poster who had trouble understanding,):


Originally posted by Kailassa
The substance loses it's radioactivity because it's unstable and breaks down to a less radioactive substance. This breakdown is what causes radioactivity. Radioactivity the energy released from this breakdown.

The parent can break down to a daughter which is a different isotope, or to a daughter which is a completely different element. Either way, a new substance has been formed.


Radioactive Decay
The decay, or loss of energy, results when an atom with one type of nucleus, called the parent radionuclide, transforms to an atom with a nucleus in a different state, or a different nucleus, either of which is named the daughter nuclide. Often the parent and daughter are different chemical elements, and in such cases the decay process results in nuclear transmutation. In an example of this, a carbon-14 atom (the "parent") emits radiation (a beta particle, antineutrino, and a gamma ray) and transforms to a nitrogen-14 atom (the "daughter"). By contrast, there exist two types of radioactive decay processes (gamma decay and internal conversion decay) that do not result in transmutation, but only decrease the energy of an excited nucleus. This results in an atom of the same element as before but with a nucleus in a lower energy state. An example is the nuclear isomer technetium-99m decaying, by the emission of a gamma ray, to an atom of technetium-99.



Originally posted by Kailassa
The half-life of any substance is the time in which half of that substance transmutes into another substance.
This may be a different element, a different isotope of the same element, or the ground form of the element.
The energy given off by the decay into a daughter substance is the energy that is radiation.

Half-life is the time it takes for such transmutation to occur.


Half Life and Radioactive DecayHalf Life and Radioactive Decay

Transmutation describes a process by which the nucleus of a radioactive atom undergoes decay into an atom with a different number of protons, until such time as a stable nucleus is produced.

An alpha particle (i.e., a helium nucleus) is released during alpha decay of a radioactive substance. An element with a lower mass is formed. Mass is not conserved. Atomic mass number (or nucleon number, or baryon number) is conserved.

Beta decay (beta negative decay) occurs when a beta (negative) particle is released from the nucleus (i.e., electron). Mass is also not conserved in beta decay. Nucleon number is conserved. In beta decay, the beta particle released originated in the nucleus of the atom, not in the electron orbital. A neutron is lost, and in its place a proton and an electron are formed.

Gamma decay is the release of excess stored energy from the nucleus. No transmutation occurs. However, gamma decay often accompanies alpha and beta negative decay in a decay series. (The series of steps in the transmutations occurring until a stable nucleus results, is called a decay series.) Gamma decay occurs when an excited nucleus (excited by photon or particle bombardment, or it may be a decay product in an excited state) returns to the ground state. An excited nucleus is heavier than the ground state, by a mass equal to the mass/energy equivalent of the energy of the emitted gamma ray.

Each radioactive nuclide emits radioactivity at its characteristic rate, different from that of other nuclides. The rate of radioactive decay is related to the energy change that accompanies the transformation, but it is not a direct relationship. The rate of radioactive emissions of a radioactive nuclide is directly proportional to the amount of radioactive material present. The rate of decay of a radioactive nuclide is measured by its half-life. Half-life is the time required for one half of the atoms in any starting sample of a radioisotope to decay.


"Half-life is the time required for one half of the atoms in any starting sample of a radioisotope to decay."
Transformation describes that decay.



Originally posted by Kailassa

Originally posted by 00nunya00
reply to post by Kailassa
And since you're dependent on Wikipedia, here

Half-life is the period of time it takes for a substance undergoing decay to decrease by half.


As your quote says, Half-life is the period of time it takes for a substance undergoing decay to decrease by half.
The substance decreases by half because half of it changes to another substance!
Did you think matter or energy simply disappear?

Nothing just disappears in this world. Things can move, things can change, but matter+energy is a constant, as any basic physics text will tell you. Half life is not about substances disappearing. It's about entropy causing a substance in a higher energy state to change into a substance in a lower energy state. This is done by releasing energy, and that energy is radiation. After the energy is released, what's left of the substance the energy was released from is a new substance. It can be a new element, a new isotope or the ground state of the original isotope, depending on what the initial substance was.

For example, carbon-14 atom (the "parent") emits radiation (a beta particle, antineutrino, and a gamma ray) and transforms to a nitrogen-14 atom (the "daughter"). Technetium-99m decays by the emission of a gamma ray, to an atom of technetium-99.

Just as I illustrated by talking of the half-life of oranges leaving half, over that period of time, turning into lemons, the half lives of the various plutonium isotopes mean that in that time half turns into uranium or americium isotopes, depending on the initial isotope of plutonium.
Decay modes of plutonium isotopes

Another example is strontium 90, a product of nuclear fission, which has a half life of 28.8 years. 90Sr undergoes β− decay with decay energy of 0.546 MeV to an electron and the yttrium isotope 90Y, which in turn undergoes β− decay with half life of 64 hours and decay energy 2.28 MeV for beta particles to an electron and 90Zr (zirconium), which is stable.

It's just like a staircase. Some isotopes are sitting higher up the staircase than others. They keep "shaking" so now and then one tumbles down to the stair below. Falling down happens because of energy release, so the fallen isotope has less energy, and thus is a different chemical. So you can label the stairs with what the chemical will be when it lands on each one. It's all about the relationship between matter and energy.



posted on Mar, 27 2011 @ 02:32 PM
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Looks like Michio would agree with Redneck's assessment of the situation.

One question is: where did this radiation come from? Most of it was in the form of iodine-134 (with a half-life of 53 minutes) and iodine-131 (with a half life of 8 days). This indicates that the radiation came directly from the core at Unit 2, rather than the spent fuel pond (where most of the iodine has already decayed). So there seems to be a direct path way from the core to the outside, meaning a breach of containment, similar to the situation in Unit 3. In other words, there could be a crack in the pressure vessel surrounding the super hot uranium core, as well as a crack in the outer primary containment vessel surrounding the pressure vessel. These cracks may allow radiation to escape from the core directly into the environment.

bigthink



posted on Mar, 27 2011 @ 02:38 PM
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reply to post by Kailassa
 

Thank you, Kailassa, for that extra information. Excellent stuff!
(Starred) I especially liked the ''oranges and lemons'' analogy as it's so simple but absolutely clear and easy to follow. I studied all this stuff yonks ago but as I get older some of this technical stuff isn't as easy to keep in my head as it used to be.

Best regards,

Mike



posted on Mar, 27 2011 @ 02:40 PM
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How Much Does Japan Know About the Status of its Reactors?

Fukushima Unit 2 Control Room



A - Computer monitors are blank.
B - Clock out of service.
C - Annunciators seem to be de-energized: no alarms reported despite many plant parameters off-normal.
D - Equipment status indicator lights not available.
E - Instrument gauges all downscale (not reading parameter values).


As you can see, the lights are on now, but thats it. No monitoring, etc.



posted on Mar, 27 2011 @ 02:43 PM
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Yet another example of Tepco's lack of PROPER foresight and planning:

Shogo Fukuda, a TEPCO spokesman, said that 8.6 was the maximum magnitude entered into the TEPCO internal computer modeling for Fukushima Dai-ichi.

Another TEPCO spokesman, Motoyasu Tamaki, used a new buzzword, "sotegai," or "outside our imagination," to describe what actually occurred.


Source

Reading through the article is an exercise in self control for me.

The more I find ou about Tepco and it's level of incompetence the more angry I become.

At this point, the onlyntrue hope we have is for some benign extraterrestrial help. We have NOTHING that can handle what is currently happening and unless the presumed corium is removed from the immediate area, a much greater disaster is to be forthcoming.

A 'rapid steam expansion' would certainly be in whole new realm of bad news.



posted on Mar, 27 2011 @ 02:49 PM
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Well,all the way to Massachusetts..............

This just in to the City Desk … the state Department of Public Health announced today they have detected low levels of radiation in Massachusetts rainwater, likely from the nuclear fallout from Japan’s crippled Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant.

As you can read below, there’s no public health threat, but it does illustrate the severity of the nuclear crisis in Japan. Here’s the release …

Breaking: Low-level radiation found in Bay State rainwater

Even though its such a tiny amount,It just goes to show how a disaster half the world away,can travel so far.And who knows how much more will travel in the coming future.



posted on Mar, 27 2011 @ 02:50 PM
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Radiation reaches lethal levels near japan plant


As the worst atomic accident since Chernobyl entered its third week, the government said soil near the Fukushima plant would be tested for plutonium contamination. The radioactive metal was used in one of the reactors and its presence outside the plant would suggest the fuel rods were damaged. www.sify.com...



In unit 2 doses from the water's surface are 1000 millisieverts per hour, in unit 3 this is 750 millisieverts per hour while unit 1 shows 60 millisieverts per hour.
www.world-nuclear-news.org...



posted on Mar, 27 2011 @ 03:00 PM
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reply to post by JustMike
 

Mike...Thank You for posting in eloquent manner...what I posted so poorly a few days back.

Yes indeed, anything said, and done, by the Emperor of Japan, has God like meaning to his peoples.

Des



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