News Flash! News services now reporting that the Japanese government has issued the following regulations pertaining to evacuees and people traveling
through Kanto and northern Japan.
JAPANESE GOVERNMENT GIVES EDICT FOR RELOCATION OF IRRADIATED PEOPLE.
As Japanese scientists have now proven only unhappy, unproductive members of society get contaminated with radiation, it is important to protect
society at large, and must therefore relocate people with high radiation levels to safe area for happiness training. This is not detention, only
learning process so all can be happy. Trainees will be de-contaminated thoroughly before being taught how to be happy person with no radiation. Thank
Bombs Under Dai-ichi Or: How I Learned To Stop Worrying And Share The Pain
It's hard for me to describe the frustration that many knowledgeable people must have felt in the first couple weeks of the disaster. During this
period I just assumed that a nuclear melt down of this scale would produce conflicting and confounding data. I didn't know diddly about nuclear
reactions at the time and was simply asking alot of questions trying to learn. The nuclear aware people I knew on the other hand were walking around
scratching their heads saying things like 'damn, that looks nuclear to me' and 'what the hell caused 4 to go off then'.
The situation was of course exacerbated by Tepco's endless attempts at obfuscating data and downplaying the radiation levels emitted from Dai-ichi.
Even after the explosion at R3, because wind currents were blowing radiation offshore and not in the direction of offsite monitoring posts, or the
lone monitoring car onsite, Tepco kept saying levels around the plant were safe.
And it should be noted that the monitoring car data is probably a sham just like the rest of Tepco's monitoring activities. When radiation levels went
up at a particular location, the monitoring car either moved away from the plume, or only took measurements inside the car, assuring no detection of
alpha and low energy beta radiation, the data needed to identify plutonium contamination.
The truth I believe is this. The R3 explosion produced the worst contamination of the accident. The cloud from that explosion carried with it high
levels of unfissioned plutonium that had been vaporized. Had this blown onshore the results would have been disastrous. As is, much of it came to rest
on top of debris islands that were gathering together a few miles offshore at the time of the explosion, and are now approaching the westcoast of
This is why I believe this to be true.
The explosion at R3 consisted of four stages, as shown. Four stages that are basically no different than the four stages of a shallow, or mid depth
underground nuclear detonation, which are 1) a shock wave, 2) a fireball, 3) a mushroom/stem cloud and 4) a base surge. The ground will usually
convulse, heave and contract, which is, again, similar to R3's explosion.
I have looked at endless footage of nuclear explosions, high explosives and the blast at R3. R3 was a nuclear explosion, there is no doubt in my mind
any more. And it wasn't any of the four main stages that convinced me. It was both the pre-blast contraction, as well as the convulsions during the
end of the fireball stage and the beginning of the mushroom cloud eruption, that sold me on a nuclear explosion. For R3 and the earth below it to
heave and contract as it did, without destroying R3's containment, left only one conclusion. These convulsions were caused by intense forces that can
only have come from underground.
It should be noted at this time a lesson I have learned concerning nuclear explosions. They are like snowflakes with no two alike. How the bomb is
constructed, materials used, it's force, where it's detonated, etc etc. all shape the end result. For subsurface blast's they can be anywhere from
completely contained underground with no crater formed and no above ground expulsions, to huge eruptions, cratering and a massive mushroom cloud
rising high into the sky.
For a nuclear accident in a weapons factory, the possible reactions are endless. Fortunately there has never been one to compare to. The closest the
world ever came occurred in 1957, when an enormous explosion in a tank containing dissolved radioactive waste occurred in the Russian province of
Chelyabinsk at the Mayak Chemical Combine, the world's largest nuclear weapons factory located in the southern Ural mountains of the Soviet Union.
Also known as Chelyabinsk-40, Mayak produced the weapons grade plutonium (WGP) used in the Soviet Union's first bombs. It was also the goal of Gary
Powers's famous surveillance flight in May of 1960.
After the explosion, radioactive fallout containing strontium-90 and other fission, transuranic and activation products contaminated about 15,000
square kilometers, which remains basically uninhabitable to this day. However, much of the populace remained, and were never evacuated, nor told of
the dangers that existed. Pictures from the 60's show little children playing along the banks of the polluted Techna River, and farmers plowing the
Very little is known about this accident, as it was deep inside Russia and isolated from the world. After the accident a veil of secrecy was placed
over anything related to radiation and no one knows how many suffered ill effects. All that is known is the local hospitals were always full, and the
graveyards were always growing.
And you can forget the INES rating of only a six. No one knows the full extent of radiation released. If you multiply Chernobyl many times, you have a
better picture of what probably happened in Mayak. When you include all the years that they dumped radioactive waste and toxic chemicals into the
countryside it becomes a hundred times Chernobyl, and easily lives up to it's name 'the most polluted area on earth'.
All so bombs could be made that could be used on people far away, killing them and making their land uninhabitable. Ironic, isn't it.
It should be noted that the explosion occurred in an underground storage tank with high level radioactive waste that lost coolant flow, boiled dry,
and exploded. High level radioactive waste usually means spent fuel rods or materials extracted from them. In this case it appears the waste was
comprised of materials left over after plutonium is extracted from the rods via a chemical process.
This brought me to another interesting fact I learned in this research. Nuclear waste is divided into two categories, high level waste and low level
waste. High level waste is as described, spent fuel in varied forms, and low level is everything else, including the core shroud, control rods, used
In other words, theoretically, until Tepco gets down to the corium, it's all just low level radioactive waste. The sludge and basement water with
readings in the Sv/h's....low level waste. Even the corium, theoretically, contains both high level waste, melted fuel, as well as low level waste,
steel from inside the reactor that also melted.
The high and low labels have nothing whatsoever to do with levels of radioactivity. The only difference is the high category is almost always very
high, and low can be anything from low to very high. And low level waste can be either incinerated, or stuck in barrels and covered with earth in
trenches just below ground level, even when highly radioactive. And waste with low levels of radiation can be dumped in a regular landfill. Cute, huh?
How radioactive can this material be, you might ask. According to the NRC, "low-level waste could cause exposures that could lead to death or an
increased risk of cancer". Not much different than high level waste it seems.
My advice is, if you're ever at a landfill dumping garbage, and a truck with containers and people in white suits and gas masks pulls up.....run.
This is another lesson I learned while researching this and other nuclear accidents. No one really has a clue what can happen when different kinds of
nuclear material are thrown together haphazardly. Or treated roughly. Like what happened at Fukushima.
In fact, no one knows how to predict how any nuclear explosion will act, even in a controlled test setting. The following is from "The Effects of
Nuclear Weapons", 1977 edition, considered the bible for nuclear explosion effects.
"There are inherent difficulties in making exact measurements of weapons effects. The results are often dependent on circumstances which are
difficult, if not impossible, to control, even in a test and certainly cannot be predicted in the event of an attack".
And in the event of an accidental explosion in a weapons factory, no one has even the foggiest of ideas of what might transpire. No simulations have
ever been done, or at least released to the public.
Where Have I Seen That Before
It took some time to finally appreciate the meaning of the R3 explosion. From day one my gut feeling was that R3 was a nuclear explosion, but the
'experts' said it was impossible, and I was a nuclear newbie, so I steered away from the theory.
In the beginning I leaned towards Gundersen's prompt criticality in the SFP. But that got flushed when I studied the main burst and realized it was
emitted from the other side of the building.
So then I tried to see the reactor blowing it's cap and plug in half when it erupted, and ejecting them out the NW and SE sides of the roof. This
would explain why the roof beams were still intact directly overhead. But this got dropped when considering the burst was vertical. Straight up. The
heaviest pieces of debris also went straight up. Which means the roof would be destroyed directly above containment. Only it wasn't.
Nothing made sense. The more I thought about it the more confused I became. And R3 was only one piece of the greater Fukushima puzzle.
It was summer 2011 and I was about ready to chuck anything and everything Fukushima to the dogs. That was why I went on a retreat in the redwoods, to
get Fukushima out of my system. Only I didn't do a retreat, and instead spent the whole time going over notes and data. I was becoming obsessed and I
didn't know why.
Then late one night I was watching the main oztvwatcher clip run again and again, almost falling asleep, the laptop tilted on my lap as my eyelids got
heavy, the screen darkened from the tilt and the next time the video started over....BAM! there it was. A yellow pulse that sent my head spinning.
Stage one of the blast. Almost a full second before the R3 explosion, a yellow pulse hits somewhere between the switching yard and R1. A shock wave.
From underground. Underground.
It opened up so many new possibilities to the origins of the R3 explosion that it took months to finally put it all together. At first I thought the
pulse was caused by R1's corium hitting ground water and starting a vapor explosion which triggered something else that led to the main blast. But so
many other things Dai-ichi were pointing to something underground and mysterious that I soon began to visualize the entire explosion being a product
of one detonation. And this detonation occurred somewhere far underground and out of sight.
But it was only recently that the obvious became obvious. It was there right in front of us from day one, and no one saw it. A nuclear explosion; a
shock wave, fireball, convulsions, mushroom cloud and base surge. The whole package neatly wrapped up for us in hundreds of different YouTube
The problem was, since the blast showed the characteristics of a mid-deep subsurface nuclear explosion that had an avenue of escape, it can't be seen
until you see the underground complex. And since Japan isn't supposed to possess nuclear weapons, for some this may be difficult to see. But it
shouldn't be. Every nation that has a nuclear arsenal has at least one underground complex for testing or research purposes. Nations that aren't
supposed to possess a nuclear arsenal, but that have nuclear power plants, probably have an underground weapons manufacturing complex. This is pretty
much the paradigm by which the nuclear industry operates.
It's all about the bomb. And it's there, even if it can't be seen. All roads leading to a Japanese nuclear arsenal eventually go through Dai-ichi.
Four Stages of Apocalypse Nuclear Bomb Style
As stated, the four stages in the R3 blast, and the four stages of an underground nuclear explosion are basically the same. Ill try and explain it as
best I can, only recently researching explosions and being a high school drop out.
The first thing to exit any nuclear explosion is the shock wave. This is caused by the extreme high temperatures, millions of degrees C, at the
instant of detonation, which flashes everything to gas. Since this conversion from solid and liquid to gas causes things to expand thousands of times
their original size, and occurs in a confined space, in microseconds, intense pressure is created. The high pressures created initiates a strong shock
wave which breaks away and expands in all directions with a velocity equal to or greater than the speed of sound in the rock medium. The shock wave
will continue to expand, and decrease in strength, eventually becoming the leading wave of a train of seismic waves.
(When I first saw the yellow flash in the oztvwatcher vid, the words I used to describe it were 'sharp yellow pulse', not knowing this was a
descriptor often used to describe the initial phase of nuclear explosions).
When the upwardly directed shock wave reaches the earth's surface, it is reflected back as a rarefaction (or tension) wave. This then collides with
the expanding burst of energy from the super heated gaseous cloud.
The explosively expanding and extremely hot gases that created the shock wave, then become the fireball. This includes vaporized weapon components and
surrounding rock. In the case of a low yield nuclear explosion in a weapons factory, there is probably a host of other active elements in the gas
cloud, including unfissioned plutonium.
The following is a fireball erupting from the ground during underground testing in the Nevada desert in the 50s. It should be noted that this
explosion shows the classic signs of a shallow explosion, with an ever expanding dome created. As depth increases, the blast will produce less of a
dome effect and more convulsive, heaving up and down like a water bed; or have a sharp jolt, with a large area collapsing leaving a deep hole or
crater. Or a hundred variations of the above.
And a deeper blast will also have most of it's radioactivity locked up in the molten earth and buried in the cavity.
The explosion at R3 behaved more like a shallow blast in it's release to the atmosphere, but didn't have an expanding dome like this. Instead it had a
contraction right before the fireball broke through the roof, followed by convulsions as the fireball was sucked back into the cloud and presumably up
the stem, all of which is indicative of a deeper blast.
I believe a possible scenario might be that the explosion under R3 was at a depth that was deep enough (>500 m) for there to be a delay in the time
between the shock wave hitting and the fireball erupting. This caused conflicting pressure waves, i.e. the suction phase of the initial pressure
spike, tension waves, aftershocks and whatever else might be bouncing around after a nuclear detonation.
It is well known that an underground explosion produces earth tremors in the 4 to 7 magnitude range. A deep underground nuclear detonation not only
produces an initial seismic tremor, it also produces a number of minor secondary tremors called "aftershocks". If the explosion was deep enough, this
phenomena may help explain the convulsions seen as the fireball sucks back into the R3 cloud.
Another point to consider, an explosion in an underground complex would go through a possible myriad of tunnels and steel doors and elevator shafts.
Whatever the reason, the R3 blast acted like both a deep detonation with contractions and convulsions, and a shallow detonation with a fireball
bursting out and producing alot of atmospheric deposition.
Concerning the fireball getting sucked back into the cloud, or damage around the plant indicating a suction effect, this may have been caused by the
suction phase of the pressure front.
A long lasting mushroom stem cloud is the most noticeable aspect of a nuclear explosion. It is also a clear indicator of a nuclear reaction. The heat
generated from a nuclear explosion, reaching tens of millions of degrees C, is thousands of times hotter than a high explosive. It takes a
proportionally longer time for this heat to dissipate. As this heat rises, it creates a mushroom cloud that is the expanding fireball cooling down.
The center of the stem cloud is the pipeline funneling the heat up into the mushroom head. There it forms a toroid, or doughnut shaped cloud that
moves out, down and around as it cools.
The time it takes for this cloud to stop growing is proportional to the heat and depth of the blast, as stated. That is why viewing the entire cloud
for the full length of time it's growing is important, something only those inside Japan's nuclear industry and regulatory agencies had access to.
All that is currently known is that the mushroom cloud is still rising with toroidal circulation as it disappears from view in the videos of the
blast. Even though we don't know how long this reaction occurs for, the fact that it is still occurring 30 seconds in, places ever more doubt on it
being non nuclear in nature. It is also common in subsurface blasts for the fireball to 'peak out' of the toroidal cloud, similar to R3's
The base surge is caused when dust-laden air from the cloud descends to the ground and moves outward as a result of it's momentum and density. This
reaction is most common in either shallow or underwater detonations. A similar reaction occurs in the R3 explosion, but it isn't quite the same as a
typical base surge. This could be due to a number of factors, but at this time is unexplained.
The base surge seen in the R3 explosion may be steam from super heated groundwater being expelled through outbuildings like the R1/R2's gas treatment
building, and/or manholes that are not a part of the drainage system, but are connected to the underground complex.
This is an area in need of more research, and will be explored further when analyzing damage to out buildings and other unexplained phenomena.
What You See Is What You Get
It has often been said that Occam's razor applies more often than not. But a problem arises when the obvious solution is also a part of the unknown
factors surrounding the mystery.
To overcome this, next time you view the R3 explosion, think in terms of the underground complex being a known structure, and go from there. It's an
Next; Chapter 11) Night of the Living Rads
edit on 30-3-2012 by zworld because: (no reason given)