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"...explosion that vaporized tons of (sic) ... into a mushroom cloud and that triggered secondary hydrogen explosions..."
at Unit 3. The mushroom cloud is composed of tons of mass consistent with tons of vaporized water.
Also surprising is that there has to date been no explanation or even acknowledgement of the dramatic differences between the Fukushima explosions from industry, government or academic sources.
When Dennis teamed up with Yull Brown, Dennis and I spoke at Department of Energy (DOE) hearings regarding the disposal of nuclear waste in America. Brown's Gas can apparently transmute nuclear material, once again doing something that conventional physics regards as "impossible." The Brown's Gas and nuclear material demonstration has been done many times, even in front of DOE personnel with their Geiger counters in hand. The nuclear waste hearings were a ruse to create a fig leaf of consent for the program that was already chosen by the Big Boys. At the hearings, I spoke first about Brown's Gas and its potential, and Dennis went next, trying to convince the DOE to at least look into the Brown's Gas solution, instead of burying the waste in the earth, hoping that nothing happens to it for the next 250,000 years.
The Fukushima disaster released about 15 per cent of the radiation that escaped from the Chernobyl reactor in Ukraine in 1986.
Shooto heavyweight champion and Pride veteran Enson Inoue
Once you were in there though, you went right up to the power plant? Yeah, we just kept driving further and further in and there was no security or anything. We got to the plant and there was a checkpoint, but we just kind of waved our way through with these fake IDs and my other friend hid under some blankets.
Before I went to jail, the circle of things that annoyed me was pretty big. (Note: Inoue was jailed in 2008 for possession of marijuana. Inoue spent 30 days in prison and is currently serving a three-year probation.)
Originally posted by Purplechive
In a way, a shame that it turns out to be a publicity stunt. The security breach is amazing. What if a REAL off-the-wall psycho gets on the premises?
Reactor vessel breaching
In absence of adequate cooling, the inside of the reactor overheats, deforms as the portions undergo thermal expansion, then structurally fails once the temperature reaches the melting point of the structural materials. The melt then accumulates on the bottom of the reactor vessel. In case of adequate cooling of the corium melt, it can solidify and the spread of damage is limited to the reactor. However, corium may melt through the reactor vessel and flow out or be ejected as a molten stream by the pressure inside the reactor. The reactor failure may be caused by overheating of its bottom by the corium melt, resulting first in creep failure and then in breach of the vessel. High level of cooling water above the corium layer may allow reaching a thermal equilibrium below the metal creep temperature, without reactor vessel failure.
If the vessel is sufficiently cooled, a crust between the melt and the reactor wall can form. The layer of molten steel on top of the oxide creates a zone of increased heat transfer to the reactor wall; this condition, known as "heat knife", exacerbates probability of formation of a localized weakening of the side of the reactor vessel and subsequent corium leak.
In case of high pressure inside the reactor vessel, breaching of its bottom may result in high-pressure blowout of the corium mass. In the first phase, only the melt itself is ejected; later a depression forms in the center of the hole and gas is discharged together with the melt, resulting in rapid decrease of pressure inside the reactor; the high temperature of the melt also causes rapid erosion and enlargement of the vessel breach. If a hole is in the center of the bottom, nearly all corium can be ejected. A hole in the side of the vessel may lead to only partial ejection of corium, retaining its portion inside the reactor. Melt-through of the reactor vessel may take from few tens of minutes to several hours.
After breaching the reactor vessel, the conditions in the reactor cavity below the core govern the production of gases. If water is present, steam and hydrogen are generated; dry concrete results in production of carbon dioxide and smaller amount of steam.
Thermal decomposition of concrete yields water vapor and carbon dioxide, which may further react with the metals in the melt, oxidizing them and being reduced to hydrogen and carbon monoxide. Decomposition of the concrete and volatilization of its alkali components are endothermic processes. Aerosols released during this phase are primarily based on concrete-originating silicon compounds. Otherwise volatile elements, e.g. caesium, can be bound in nonvolatile insoluble silicates.
Several reactions occur between the concrete and the corium melt. Free and chemically bound water is released from the concrete as steam. Calcium carbonate is decomposed, producing carbon dioxide and calcium oxide. Water and carbon dioxide penetrate the corium mass, exothermically oxidizing the nonoxidized metals present in it and yielding gaseous hydrogen and carbon monoxide; large amounts of hydrogen can be produced. The calcium oxide, silica, and silicates melt and are mixed into the corium. The oxide phase, in which the nonvolatile fission products are concentrated, can stabilize at temperatures of 1300–1500 °C for a considerable time. An eventually present layer of more dense molten metal, containing fewer radioisotopes (Ru, Tc, Pd, etc., initially composed of molten zircaloy, iron, chromium, nickel, manganese, silver, and other construction materials and metallic fission products, and tellurium bound as zirconium telluride) than the oxide layer (which concentrates Sr, Ba, La, Sb, Sn, Nb, Mo, etc. and is initially composed primarily of zirconium dioxide and uranium dioxide, possibly with iron oxide and boron oxides), can form an interface between the oxides and the concrete below, slowing down the corium penetration and solidifying within a couple of hours. ....(to continued)
.... (continued) The oxide layer produces heat primarily by decay heat, while the principal heat source in the metal layer is exothermic reaction with water released from the concrete. Decomposition of concrete and volatilization of the alkali metal compounds consumes substantial amount of heat. The fast erosion phase of the concrete basemat lasts for about an hour and progresses into about one meter depth, then slows to several centimeters per hour, and stops completely when the melt cools below the decomposition temperature of concrete (about 1100 °C). Complete melt-through can occur in several days even through several meters of concrete; the corium then penetrates several meters into the underlying soil, spreads around, cools and solidifies. During the interaction between corium and concrete, very high temperatures can be achieved. Less volatile aerosols of Ba, Ce, La, Sr, and other fission products are formed during this phase and introduced into the containment building at time when most of early aerosols is already deposited. Tellurium is released with progress of zirconium telluride decomposition. Bubbles of gas flowing through the melt promote aerosol formation.
The thermal hydraulics of corium-concrete interactions (CCI, or also MCCI, "molten core-concrete interactions") is sufficiently understood. However the dynamics of the movement of corium in and outside of the reactor vessel is highly complex, and the number of possible scenarios is wide; slow drip of melt into an underlying water pool can result in complete quenching, while a fast contact of large mass of corium with water may result in destructive steam explosion. Corium may be completely retained by the reactor vessel, or the reactor floor or some of the instrument penetration holes can be melted through.
The thermal load by corium on the floor below the reactor vessel can be assessed by a grid of fiber optic sensors embedded in the concrete. Pure silica fibers are needed as they are more resistant to high radiation levels.
Some reactor building designs, e.g. the EPR, incorporate dedicated corium spread areas (Core Catchers), where the melt can deposit without coming in contact with water and without excessive reaction with concrete. Only later, when a crust is formed on the melt, limited amounts of water can be introduced to cool the mass.
Materials based on titanium dioxide and neodymium(III) oxide seem to be more resistant to corium than concrete.
Deposition of corium on the containment vessel inner surface, e.g. by high-pressure ejection from the reactor pressure vessel, can cause containment failure by direct containment heating (DCH).