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Originally posted by Wertwog
Originally posted by Human0815
According this Article:
In the case of the Tokai Nuclear Power Plant, the first commercial plant to undergo decommissioning, spent fuel was removed over a span of three years beginning in 1998, and was transported to Britain for reprocessing. Dismantling of the facilities began in 2001, with current efforts being made toward the dismantling of heat exchangers; workers have not yet begun to take the reactor itself apart. The entire process is expected to be an 88.5-billion-yen project
involving 563,000 people.
Is this really possible, 563.000 People?
How many they will need for F'Shima?
Well, let's see. Chernobyl needed 500,000 liquidators. It was 1/4 the size of one of these reactors. But let's be optimistic and say we're twice as efficient and have better equipment now (haha). That would make 1 million workers per reactor = 4 million "volunteers". Russia conscripted it's military, Japan does not have a conscript army - it's all volunteer.
In June, a group of nuclear tech companies, including Silicon Valley startup Kurion, started cleaning the tens of millions of gallons of contaminated water at the Fukushima nuclear power plants in Japan. Now Kurion says the efforts are working, and cesium levels in the water have dropped by more than 40 percent. Three-year-old Kurion makes a cleanup material (they call it ion specific media) that soaks up radioactive cesium and iodine in contaminated water and contains the waste by shrinking it down to a small-enough size, then turning it into glass, a process called vitrification. The company is backed by investors Lux Capital and Firelake Capital, and is the only American company and startup company to work on the Japanese cleanup efforts.
Originally posted by Silverlok
LOTS of 'off the radar' "experimentation", was certainly happening at Fukushima Daiichi, and either they are the dumbest nuclear power-plant operators in the world or they are criminally insane, or exceedingly greedy . In either case their is no rational or irrational method of connecting the emergency systems of two reactors in such a way ... for starters...any engineer can see through tepco and the Japanese government lies and they are totally in fantasy space, in a PR sense ...no one believes them. it is nice that they have achieved a kind of hallmark: the JAPANESE government ( which is part of Tepco ) has become icon for dishonesty for the next ...well..as long as mankind survives on this planet
The ministry released a map on Monday showing the contaminated land.
The map shows 29.46 million bequerels of cesium on one-square-meter land in a location in Okuma Town, several hundreds meters from the nuclear plant.
The figure exceeds the IAEA standard of 10 million bequerels per square meter under which people are required to temporarily evacuate.
In the 1986 Chernobyl disaster, people in areas contaminated with 555,000 bequerels of cesium per one square meter were required to temporarily relocate.
Dr. Michio Ishikawa Chief Adviser(Former President & CEO) Japan Nuclear Technology Institute(JANTI)
Let me make something clear concerning cesium contamination.As detailed on the website of the Japan Nuclear Technology Institute, the spread and strength of contamination in this case are far smaller in scale than those reported following the Chernobyl accident, due to the existence of containment vessels and the absence of a graphite fire.
Rice farmers in Fukushima Prefecture have begun shipping early-harvested rice after it cleared tests for possible radioactive contamination. Rice is Japan's staple food.
The first batch of newly harvested rice was loaded onto trucks at a farm in Koriyama City on Monday.
Earlier this month, Fukushima checked radiation levels of early-harvested varieties of rice at paddies of all rice growers in the prefecture. Test results confirmed the safety of all the checked rice, although a small amount of radioactive cesium was detected in rice grown at one location.
(2) Regarding specific inspection methods and charge, please ask directly to each inspection agency.
(3) MAFF does not assure the implementation of inspections by agencies listed below because these agencies are those that have conducted inspections or that have possibilities of conducting inspections.
Germanium detectors are semiconductor diodes having a P-I-N structure in which the Intrinsic (I) region is sensitive to ionizing radiation, particularly X-rays and gamma rays. Under reverse bias, an electric field extends across the intrinsic or depleted region. When photons interact with the material within the depleted volume of a detector, charge carriers (holes and electrons) are produced and are swept by the electric field to the P and N electrodes. This charge, which is in proportion to the energy deposited in the detector by the incoming photon, is converted into a voltage pulse by an integral charge sensitive preamplifier. Because germanium has a relatively low band gap, these detectors must be cooled in order to reduce the thermal generation of charge carriers (thus reverse leakage current) to an acceptable level. Otherwise, leakage current induced noise destroys the energy resolution of the detector. Liquid nitrogen, which has a temperature of 77�K is the common cooling medium for such detectors. The detector is mounted in a vacuum chamber which is attached to or inserted into an LN2 dewar or an electrically powered cooler. The sensitive detector surfaces are thus protected from moisture and condensable contaminants.
Greenpeace said on Monday that schools and surrounding areas located 60 km (38 miles) from Japan's tsunami-hit nuclear power plant were unsafe for children, showing radiation readings as much as 70 times internationally accepted levels. The environmental group took samples at and near three schools in Fukushima city, well outside the 20 km exclusion zone from Tokyo Electric Power's stricken Fukushima Daiichi nuclear complex in Japan's northeast. "No parent should have to choose between radiation exposure and education for their child," said Kazue Suzuki, Greenpeace Japan's anti-nuclear project head. The government had already taken steps to decontaminate schools in Fukushima prefecture, where the crippled plant has been leaking radiation since it was hit by the March 11 earthquake and tsunami. Calling the measures "deplorably late and inadequate," Greenpeace said it had found average dose rates above the maximum allowed under international standards, of 1 millisievert per year, or 0.11 microsievert per hour. Japan's education ministry on Friday set a looser standard, allowing up to 1 microsievert per hour of radiation in schools. Greenpeace said that inside a high school it tested, the reading was 0.5 microsievert per hour, breaching international standards even after the government's clean-up. At a staircase connecting a school playground to the street, it found radiation amounting to 7.9 microsieverts per hour, or about 70 times the maximum allowed, exceeding even Japan's own standard.
Greenpeace urged the government to delay reopening the schools as planned on Sept. 1 after the summer break and relocate children in the most affected cities until decontamination was complete. Fukushima city dismissed Greenpeace's calls, saying the schools were safe under the government's norms. "We're finished decontaminating the schools, and they no longer have high radiation levels," city official Yoshimasa Kanno said. He added that postponing the opening of more than 100 schools in the city based on Greenpeace's findings of "only three" would be unreasonable.
Radioactive cesium exceeding 8,000 becquerels/kg has been detected in the ashes from burning the regular household garbage in Kanto and Tohoku regions. The Ministry of the Environment has decided to apply the same rule as the disaster debris and allow the ashes to be buried. The municipalities will be able to bury the ashes that they have stored temporarily, but it may be difficult to obtain consent from the residents living near the disposal facilities. "Burning that waste and with radioactive, rain will come down again upon their own people, as well as Canada and the U.S. They're refusing to see the seriousness of this disaster and it's making it worse.", says nuclear engineer Arnie Gundersen. In other areas it has reached as high as "100,000 becquerels/kg", in Fukushima, ashes, after burning household garbage . . . 95,300 becquerels/kg.
This new policy is to be applied to ashes from disaster debris and regular garbage that are radioactive. It's not mentioned in the article but the ashes and slag from the radioactive sewage sludge will likely be disposed under the same policy - i.e. burn and bury. Some garbage incinerators and sludge incinerators at waste processing plants and sewage treatment plants in cities in Kanto have become so radioactive that they have to be shut down. The entire country is potentially a nuclear waste disposal site, because of this one disaster. Those following all this know Fukushima City should have been evacuated right from the beginning. - Fukushima Cesium-137 Leaks 'Equal 168 Hiroshimas'
With regard to Fukushima, Kobe University Radiation Expert Prof. Tomoya Yamauchi, said in regard to this city of 290,000 People: "Evacuation Must Be Conducted As Soon As Possible".
These were all taken April 15. We don't see the area north of #2 often.
With regard to previous press releases concerning results of nuclide analyses of radioactive materials at Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station of TEPCO, it has been confirmed that there were some incorrect descriptions and therefore we hereby would like to correct them as follows and in the attachment.
(1) Clerical errors on density limit by the announcement of reactor regulation and half-life In the press releases there were some clerical errors on density limit by the announcement of reactor regulation and half-life.
(2) Errors on measured value In the press releases there were some errors on measured values in some results of nuclide analyses.
(3) Errors on scaling factors In the press releases there were some errors on scaling factors which were calculated as the ratio of density of sample (measured value) to density limit by the announcement of reactor regulation.
(4) Errors on a unit in measured values In the press releases we partly used Bq/cm3 instead of Bq/Kg by mistake.
(5) Errors on calculation formula In the press releases we used wrong calculating formulas and as a result we announced wrong measured values. -A set of the data and materials on past nuclide analyses in question and for correction *English translation of the attachment is now being developed and it takes a while to complete them. We will post the translations when it is prepared. (The document written in Japanese below will be replaced by English translations.) We apologize for this inconvenience caused.
A worker in his 40s who had been engaged in recovery work at the crisis-hit Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant has died of acute leukemia, plant operator Tokyo Electric Power Co. said Tuesday.
The man had been exposed to 0.5 millisievert of radiation at the plant and showed no internal exposure to radiation, said the power company, known as TEPCO.
Japan's health ministry will restore the cumulative radiation exposure limit for emergency workers at the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear plant to the original 100 millisieverts this autumn. The current limit is 250 milisieverts.
A number of schools in Tokyo are banning the use of playground sandboxes or replacing their sand due to radiation fears even though the capital is more than 200 kilometers away from the crippled Fukushima No. 1 Nuclear Power Plant.
While there is no government-set standard over the radiation levels in sandboxes, there are reports that levels of radiation exceeding standards set voluntarily by local municipalities have been detected in sandboxes at schools in Tokyo. Local governments and school officials are intensifying their calls on the central government to draw up a safety standard at an early date.
In Tokyo's Katsushika Ward, officials measured atmospheric radiation dosages in 378 sandboxes at kindergartens, elementary and junior high schools and parks in the ward between Aug. 3 and 17 upon requests by residents. As a result, radiation doses in 29 sandboxes surpassed the 0.25 microsieverts per hour level set by the ward as its own safety limit based on the standards drawn up by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) and other organizations. If radiation doses exceed that standard, a person who stayed at such a location for eight hours a day would be exposed to more than 1 millisievert of radiation a year, according to the ward.
Based on the measurement results, the Katsushika Ward Office has requested those responsible for the facilities to suspend the use of their sandboxes. The operators said they will take such safety measures as scraping off the topsoil and replacing the sand. "We are once again calling on children to wash their hands after they exercise outside," said Keiko Imai, principal of the Handa Nursery School in Katsushika Ward, whose sandbox was found to be emitting 0.31 microseiverts of radiation per hour. "In order to remove anxiety among children and their parents and guardians, we want the central government to immediately draw up clear safety standards," she said.
At least two workers at the crisis-stricken Fukushima No. 1 Nuclear Power Plant were blasted with more than 15 millisieverts of beta radiation on Aug. 28, plant operator Tokyo Electric Power Co. (TEPCO) has announced. Two of the men were replacing parts of a system for decontaminating radioactive substance-contaminated water when they were irradiated. One other worker with them at the time also likely absorbed a high radiation dose, and his exposure level is now being checked. The men will undergo diagnostic tests beginning on Aug. 30 to assess their condition. According to the TEPCO announcement of Aug. 29, the three men were replacing the filters on the decontamination system between 10 and 11:30 a.m. on Aug. 28, pulling out submerged components to replace the filters. The maximum beta radiation exposure to workers during this task is capped at 15 millisieverts, but two of the men absorbed doses of 23.4 and 17.1 millisieverts, respectively. Beta rays are a type of radiation that can penetrate through the skin and into the body, and total exposure is legally limited to 1,000 millisieverts. The three men involved noticed they had gone over the 15-millisievert limit for their task on Aug. 28, but did not report it to their supervisor until the following day as they thought the exposure level was within legal limits.