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Johannes Schöner's 1515 globe gores which include a depiction of an extremely large nonexistent southern continent.
The map's internal symmetry comprising three main zones, 1) an upper arch, 2) a central circle, and 3) a downward arcing band.
Johannes Schöner's map of a southern continent restored to its original form as a world map.
Zone 1: The uppermost arched zone sitting above Rome most likely honored Caesar Augustus who commissioned the map, while the mappae mundi reserved the uppermost region of the map for images of Christ.
Zone 2: The center circular zone likely comprised a consolidation of the commentary later dispersed throughout the mappae mundi.
Zone 3: The lower downward arcing band likely housed depictions of the world's flora, fauna and races, much like the downward arcing bands on the mappae mundi also located at the southernmost point of the map.
Consolidated band of flora, fauna, and races as found on the Ebstorf Mappa Mundi in the southernmost region of the map, which likely originally occupied the similarly downward arcing southernmost zone of Agrippa's map. (Also viewable in this and the following image is a portion of the extensive commentary distributed throughout the map, which would have originally been consolidated within the central circular zone of Agrippa's map.)
Image of the Christ placed at the top of the Ebstorf Mappa Mundi. This was likely an adaptation from Agrippa's map where an image of someone of honor, likely Caesar Augustus, occupied the arch above Rome, likewise the most prominent position on the map.
Schöner's depiction of Italy (left) alongside a modern depiction.
Schöner's depiction of Greece (left) alongside a modern depiction.
Schöner's depiction of Turkey and the Gulf of Izmir (left) alongside a modern depiction.
Greek Hecataeus map (left) set alongside Schöner’s world map (right). Note that both feature ONLY TWO prominent peninsulas (1 and 2) and they similarly extend off the upper portion of their C-shaped forms. They both include a depiction of the Gulf of Izmir (3) just above a cantilevered southern coast of Turkey (4). Both maps round the coast between Israel and Egypt (4) and significantly raise up the western end of North Africa comprising Tunisia, Algeria and Morocco (5).
The Hereford Mappa Mundi, which like Schöner’s map, incorporates an extremely unique and unusual landlocked waterway spanning the African portion of the map terminated at each end by large lakes (highlighted in red) and a mountain range paralleling its length to the north. (Please note that the map is oriented with east to the top of the map.)
Ptolemy World Map displaying an unbroken chain of mountains just inside the North African coast much like Schöner's map.
An enlarged section of the Tabula Peutingeriana displaying the unbroken chain of mountains lining the bottom of North Africa
Schöner’s western lake inset beneath the Ebstorf's western lake (left) and Schöner’s eastern lake inset above the Ebstorf's eastern lake. While both clearly show water flowing out of the western lake, both maps depict the waterway truncated, or dropping underground in the vicinity of the eastern lake, conforming with Roman belief.
"It then buries itself once again in the sands of the desert, and remains concealed for a distance of twenty days' journey, till it has reached the confines of Æthiopia." - Pliny NH, Book V, chapter 10
A modern reconstruction of Agrippa’s Orbis Terrarum—not the author's—based on the mappae mundi, which depicts the lateral waterway spanning the African continent dividing Africa to the north and Ethiopia to the south. The waterway originates in the west and ends in the east where it disappears underground before rising one last time as the Nile River flowing above ground to the Mediterranean Sea.
The Piri Reis map of 1513.
1519 Lopo Homem Map with its depiction of a vast enclosed southern sea.
Portions of the 1519 Lopo Homem (left) and 1513 Piri Reis maps(right) sharing identical depictions of the Rio de la Plata and arcing coastline beneath.
Copy of Ptolemy’s 2nd century world map with its depiction of a vast enclosed southern sea.
No one now living has seen a map like this. I have composed and constructed it using about twenty maps and mappaemundi; these are the maps which were composed in the time of Alexander of the Two Horns, and which show the inhabited portion of the earth. The Arabs call these maps ja'fariya.
I have used eight ja'fariya map, an Arab map of India and four recent Portuguese maps - these maps show the sea of Sind (Sindhu-sagara), India (Arabian Sea) and China according to mathematical principles - and also a map of the western regions drawn by Colombo (Columbus). The final form was arrived at BY REDUCING ALL THESE MAPS TO THE SAME SCALE. Therefore the present map is as accurate for the Seven Seas as the maps of our own countries used by sailors.
Schöner’s 1515 erroneous depiction (left) of the San Matias Gulf as a Strait.
"They have sailed around that point, and ascertained that the country lay, as in the south of Europe, entirely from east to west. It is as if one crossed the Strait of Gibraltar to go east in ranging the coast of Barbary."
An image of the Tabula Peutingeriana vertically stretched for clarity above an image in its true proportions.
Recreation of Agrippa's partially constructed map with linear and concentric guidelines still visible. To someone unfamiliar with the map, it would simply be recognized as a large landmass separated from the tip of another land (top right).
"After they had navigated for nearly sixty leagues [180 miles] to round the Cape, they again sighted the continent on the other side, and steered towards the northwest."
Example of a polar projection which exhibits an array of latitudinal and longitudinal delineations resembling the concentric grid used on Agrippa's map.
Agrippa's Orbis Terrarum affixed to Schöner's 1515 globe by centering the map's concentric rings over the South Pole, and stretching the English channel up near the 40th parallel, the location of an alleged strait.
Charles Hapgood's tracing of Johannes Schöner 1524 globe with a depiction of a large southern continent which is an extreme departure from his 1515 design.
The Strait of Magellan with a large waterway composed of Inútil Bay and Canal Whiteside extending into the southern shore.
The Strait of Magellan as portrayed on Schöner's 1524 World Globe (left) alongside Antonio Pigafetta’s map of the strait, both sharing a similar portrayal of a U-shaped southern bay in the center of the strait.
Atka Bay, Antarctica (top), a U-shaped bay similar to Finé’s depiction (bottom) in both appearance and location.
Outline of modern map of Antarctica with the Palmer Peninsula faded out (left) alongside an outline of Oronce Finé’s map of the continent (right) displayed as they would both appear on a standard polar projection. Both versions consist of a large, elongated eastern landmass that is roughly 1½ times taller than it is wide. This part of Antarctica is called Greater or Eastern Antarctica. Protruding almost perpendicularly off of the upper western side of this mass is a much smaller and uniquely squarish landmass called Lesser or Western Antarctica whose lower coastline aligns with the center of Eastern Antarctica.
A schematic template based on the shape of Antarctica overlaid onto Finé’s Antarctica demonstrates the uncanny accuracy of Finé’s design. The template is aligned to the shape of Western Antarctica and to Ross Island (F). Note how Atka Bay (A) is accurately rendered and aligned while finding itself placed just short of its actual location. Meanwhile the precise placement and alignment of Western Antarctica along the upper half of Eastern Antarctica allow for a very accurate rendering of the Weddell Sea’s wide-angled coastline (B). We find Finé’s rendering of Western Antarctica’s flat westernmost coast (C) running parallel to Eastern Antarctica with a similarly angled chamfer extending off its southern end which is notched by Sulzberger Bay (D). Western Antarctica's southeastern coast aligns at a near right angle with Eastern Antarctica with the mouth of a similar inland waterway cutting into the Western Antarctic coast where they converge (E). And finally, Ross Island is accurately portrayed just below a lone point along the coast of Victoria Land (F).
Simple concept of scaling between two points. In this case the smaller square is enlarged and realigned when points 'a' and 'b' are stretched between new points 'A' and 'B'.
Mercator World Map of 1538.
Magnification of a pair of island in the Pacific lying beyond Mercator's Antarctic continent inscribed with the name "Insulas Infortunatas": Unfortunate Islands.
Schöner's depiction of the Unfortunate Islands more closely resemble Antarctica's Carney and Siple Islands than...
The actual Unfortunate Islands depicted more accurately on the Hadji Ahmed Map (right).
Modern map of Antarctica.
Finé's 1531 depiction of Antarctica with Schöner's portrayal of the Unfortunate Islands added.
Recreation of Schöner's source map with Palmer Peninsula rendered as an island. (Modern-day inscriptions added)
"Schöner's incorporation of Agrippa’s Orbis Terrarum onto his 1515 world globe, increases exponentially the likelihood that an ancient map of a deglaciated Antarctica was incorporated onto his 1524 globe."
Schöner's Methodology For Cartographic Incorporation Of New Discoveries:
Step 1. Referencing ancient maps for his template: Agrippa's Orbis Terrarum in 1515 (left) and an ancient map of Antarctica in 1524 (right),
Step 2. Reconciling the ancient maps to new discoveries: (A) Matching the British Channel to a purported strait and (B) Atka Bay to a southern bay in the Strait of Magellan, and
Step 3. Scaling the maps to new globes via a secondary point: (C) Aligning the center of a concentric Mediterranean to the South Pole and (D) the islands of Carney and Siple to the Unfortunate Islands high in the Pacific.